Edited by John A. Tucker
The Confucian Debate between Mèng Zǐ and Xún Zǐ
1 Introduction At various points in his work on somatic awareness, Richard Shusterman draws on East Asian thought, particularly the root school of Confucianism and its distinctive approaches to ritualized self-cultivation in order to express ideas where the European-American idiom finds itself
-general, or xunfu (巡撫), of the province of Fujian. In this position, he contributed to the national defense against the disorders caused by pirates. Later, he occupied other high positions in Nanjing. In the margins of his political career, Xu Fuyuan pursued intellectual interests. Devoted to Confucianism
Recently, Sean Cordell has raised a problem for Aristotelians who seriously consider social roles: When the demands of the role conflict with the demands of morality, which norms ought one follow? However, this problem, which I call the role dilemma, is not specific to Aristotelians. Classical Confucians face a similar problem. How do Confucians resolve conflicts between the demands of humaneness (ren 仁) and the demands of social roles and the social norms (li 礼) that govern these roles? Confucians who favor humaneness, maintaining that other demands are defeasible, offer an externalism about roles. This response is similar to the Aristotelian argument that the demands of human excellence trump other demands. Consequently, Confucian externalism collapses into a virtue ethic. Confucians who favor the demands of li offer an internalism about roles. However, internalism is undesirable because it implies relativism and condones oppressive social institutions. The Confucian role ethicist must offer a tenable solution that steers clear of the pitfalls of both externalism and internalism. Although I do not advance a solution here, I believe a tenable alternative exists. The goals of this paper, instead, are to demonstrate that classical Confucians face the role dilemma and to initiate a discussion about the theoretical apparatus required of Confucian role ethics in order to distinguish it from other ethical theories. I conclude with some programmatic remarks about additional questions and problems that ought to be addressed.
included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights formulated as a common standard for all peoples: It would regard the core concept of Confucianism as the essential attribute of human beings, and this core concept would become the philosophical foundation of human rights and fundamental freedoms in
[German Version] Confucianism...
practices are deliberately assigned to female partners along with moral teachings. By bringing to light the aspects of the tjc faith that are imbued with Confucianism, I will challenge the understanding of the relationship between Pentecostalism and indigenous culture that is usually presumed in the
Edited by Mathew Foust and Sor-Hoon Tan
Jan Erik Christensen
1 Introduction The Confucian idea of the ‘distinction between righteousness and profit’ ( yìlì zhī biàn 義利之辨) discussed by Mencius resonates with many other concepts in Confucian philosophy. Confucianism emphasizes the need to preserve ‘unselfishness’ ( gōng 公) and act out ‘righteousness’ ( yì 義