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Edited by John A. Tucker

Critical Readings on Japanese Confucianism facilitates more in-depth and profound understandings of the many dimensions of Confucianism in Japan by bringing together important studies from the disciplines of history, philosophy, and religion, as well as important texts in translation. Volume one examines historical unfoldings of Japanese Confucianism as a stimulating array of intellectual expressions operative from the beginnings of Japanese literary culture through the present. Volume two explores philosophical approaches to Confucian ethics, metaphysics, and political thinking. Volume three reveals important religious and spiritual dimensions of Confucianism. Reinforcing these, the final volume presents several Japanese Confucian texts in translation. Overall the volumes offer a vision of Confucianism as a dynamic and multifaceted force in ongoing developments of Japanese culture.

Reconsidering Richard Shusterman’s Somaesthetics

The Confucian Debate between Mèng Zǐ and Xún Zǐ

James Garrison

1 Introduction At various points in his work on somatic awareness, Richard Shusterman draws on East Asian thought, particularly the root school of Confucianism and its distinctive approaches to ritualized self-cultivation in order to express ideas where the European-American idiom finds itself

Thierry Meynard

-general, or xunfu (巡撫), of the province of Fujian. In this position, he contributed to the national defense against the disorders caused by pirates. Later, he occupied other high positions in Nanjing. In the margins of his political career, Xu Fuyuan pursued intellectual interests. Devoted to Confucianism

John Ramsey

Recently, Sean Cordell has raised a problem for Aristotelians who seriously consider social roles: When the demands of the role conflict with the demands of morality, which norms ought one follow? However, this problem, which I call the role dilemma, is not specific to Aristotelians. Classical Confucians face a similar problem. How do Confucians resolve conflicts between the demands of humaneness (ren 仁) and the demands of social roles and the social norms (li 礼) that govern these roles? Confucians who favor humaneness, maintaining that other demands are defeasible, offer an externalism about roles. This response is similar to the Aristotelian argument that the demands of human excellence trump other demands. Consequently, Confucian externalism collapses into a virtue ethic. Confucians who favor the demands of li offer an internalism about roles. However, internalism is undesirable because it implies relativism and condones oppressive social institutions. The Confucian role ethicist must offer a tenable solution that steers clear of the pitfalls of both externalism and internalism. Although I do not advance a solution here, I believe a tenable alternative exists. The goals of this paper, instead, are to demonstrate that classical Confucians face the role dilemma and to initiate a discussion about the theoretical apparatus required of Confucian role ethics in order to distinguish it from other ethical theories. I conclude with some programmatic remarks about additional questions and problems that ought to be addressed.

Pinghua Sun

included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights formulated as a common standard for all peoples: It would regard the core concept of Confucianism as the essential attribute of human beings, and this core concept would become the philosophical foundation of human rights and fundamental freedoms in

[German Version] Confucianism...

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Ke-hsien Huang

practices are deliberately assigned to female partners along with moral teachings. By bringing to light the aspects of the tjc faith that are imbued with Confucianism, I will challenge the understanding of the relationship between Pentecostalism and indigenous culture that is usually presumed in the

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Edited by Mathew Foust and Sor-Hoon Tan

This work builds on earlier works, which defend Confucianism against charges of sexism and present interpretations of Confucianism compatible with Feminism, but contributors go beyond the much discussed care ethics, and common arguments of how ren (humaneness) can ground an egalitarian humanism that include gender equality. Besides ethics and political philosophy topics, this volume includes discussions in other philosophical areas such as epistemology, metaphysics, and applied philosophy. Through the encounter of Feminism and Confucius’s perspectives, each contributor generates novel answers to the questions addressed. In some cases, authors raise new questions about the chosen topic, inadequacies in how it has been addressed in previous Confucian or Feminist discourse, and/or challenges for either or both Confucianism and Feminism.

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Michael Loewe

Intellectual developments of the Western Han dynasty (202 BCE – 9 CE) have been studied hitherto on the assumptions that a system described as ‘Confucianism’ acquired paramount importance and that Dong Zhongshu (ca. 198 to ca. 107 BCE) had been responsible for formulating its principles. In challenging these assumptions, this book examines Dong’ career and reputation, and his supposed authorship of the Chunqiu fanlu, for long subject to question. It is concluded that while some parts of that text may well represent the teachings that Dong Zhongshu promoted, some may perhaps date from as late as 79 CE; still others bear an affinity to writings which, banned as being suspect or potentially subversive, survive in no more than fragmentary form.

Jan Erik Christensen

1 Introduction The Confucian idea of the ‘distinction between righteousness and profit’ ( yìlì zhī biàn 義利之辨) discussed by Mencius resonates with many other concepts in Confucian philosophy. Confucianism emphasizes the need to preserve ‘unselfishness’ ( gōng 公) and act out ‘righteousness’ ( yì 義