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Meredith Hughes

Art can shift our understanding of time by incorporating a durational component, or by using time as a material that can form and transform. Performance work by artists such as Tehching Hseih and Marina Abramovic speaks directly to these concerns where time emerges as a convention that can be related to and manipulated in multiple ways. In my recent PhD research in the textiles studio at Australian National University, I investigated time as a medium within my art practice. In this chapter, I will discuss one project – writing an exegesis about my PhD research – where I used time reflexively in combination with writing, eggshells, ink and alphabet stamps. I structured a process for writing around the time limitations of caring for my two-year-old daughter. Every second day, for three months, I would write 200 words in the time she was bathed and put to bed by her father, approximately one hour. On the day in between, in the same time, I would stamp the writing onto eggshells with a set of alphabet stamps and inkpad. For the following three months, each second day I revisited each piece of writing to ‘infuse’ it with the Buddhist concept, ‘dependent arising,’ that informed the methodology of my research. ‘Dependent arising’ refers to the way things exist in dependence upon other things, relationally, causally and in flux. On alternate days I stamped this Buddhist infused text. In this chapter, I will describe the project 10,000 Words, with images of the discreet texts as visual works and the final art work, an installation of the eggshells with accompanying sound of them being ground in a circular movement. I will discuss how the relationship to time constructed by this project explores a nexus of temporality and subjectivity.

Carmel Smith

Against the backdrop of the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the declaration of a new paradigm for the study of children and childhood in the 1990s, the field of childhood studies which has subsequently emerged is both complex and diverse. There has been a significant shift towards multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches as well as a focus on the positioning of children and childhood in research. This chapter examines this trend by drawing on the perspectives of 22 international key thinkers, from different disciplinary backgrounds, all of whom have made a substantial contribution to theory and research about children and childhood over the course of the last 30 years. In depth interviews allowed access to participants’ personal and previously unpublished accounts of childhood research, together with their reflections on their research experiences and academic careers. The history of the field of childhood studies, the status of the current field and possible future directions are explored. What emerges from these interviews is a diverse range of experiences and standpoints, a multiplicity of approaches and evident disagreements on a number of core issues. The chapter concludes by arguing that the most fundamental differences between these key thinkers centres on how best to address the relationship between children and childhood theoretically and methodologically. Should the primary focus be on childhood as a structural, generational and comparative category or is there a growing need to acknowledge the limits of modernist approaches and recognise the plurality of childhoods and children’s experiences? Importantly, will these different perspectives remain embedded within disciplines or can they be incorporated into a coherent multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach to the study of children and childhood?

Peter W. Ferretto

The process of designing space is a topic that paradoxically architects and the architectural profession seldom address or even discuss, preferring to leave the creative process shrouded in a veil of mystery, further enhancing the notion of the architect as the original genius. Should they engage in any critical debate their readings tend to diverge from the subject matter, become blurred by layers of justifications and typically revert to a diagram that crystalizes their conception of space; a formulaic two dimensional representation, commonly drawn, as an electrical circuit board notation, that acts as the universally abused term, ‘concept’ of the proposal. Contemporary architecture has become defined by the ‘diagram’, where architectural diagrams today dictate how spaces are generated, i.e. by default. This paradigm shift, both professionally and in academia, has resulted in ‘space’ frequently becoming a by-product material: an operative reaction to an abstract ‘diagram’. This chapter seeks to demystify the design process and explore an alternative way to design space, namely Cast Space. Cast Space, as a design methodology, purges the design process of preconceived notions and starts empirically, formulating space without relying on traditional assumptions such as arranging walls within a plane, rather allowing designers to conceive space negatively in the process of transforming space from a mechanical reaction into an intellectual action. This chapter will explore how the casting process allows architects to venture outside their comfort zone. To cast a space is simultaneously a physical act and a metaphysical process; the designer has to interpret a 3D idea and translate it into a negative reality. Compared to the conventional canons of designing space via representational tools, casting avoids representation focusing on the fabrication of a mold – the mental construct of transforming an absent receptacle into a present form.

Georg Friedrich Simet

The language of modern science is understood as focused on papers, texts within disciplinary related discourses. Such texts address specific topics of scientific interest by providing arguments for or against research theorems. Nevertheless, events, particularly in quantum reality cannot be described as just statements of ‘truth’: unambiguousness and independence; the writing about science needs new formats and styles. Zeilinger, for instances, uses the dialogue format in order to show the interested, non-expert audience how to reflect on and interpret quantum events. Instead of indicating single research outputs and outcomes as absolute statements he considers the dependence of the observed from what is, or what is to be observed. He concentrates on the development of quantum theorems and shows such development processes in progress, in more or less fictive dialogues. This approach brings us back to the times of Attic Philosophy. Plato was the first who made use of the dialogic form: to let the reader/listener participate in philosophy as on-going process of reflection. The result was not as interesting as comprehending the way: the method to achieve it. Most of Plato’s dialogues ended in aporia indecidability. Aristotle instead was the first who established science as a system of classified true statements. In the following centuries science became more and important and modern. But in the beginning of the 20th century, the discovery of quantum effects suddenly led to the questioning of its mechanistic assumptions. Looking deeper into the history of science, this story, initiated by Aristotle, turned out to be a narrative of errors that necessarily caused and still causes paradigm changes. Once, Aristotle’s results oriented approach rightly succeeded over Plato’s pure methodology. By today, however, it seems that Aristotle’s founding of science becomes an obsolescent model. Plato’s process oriented way of reflection could be more adequate for the post-modern discourse of science.

Joana Patrício

For the last decades, intimate partner violence has become recognized as a major social problem. In Portugal, domestic violence was criminalized in 2007 and a national victim’s support network (e.g. shelters) is being implemented. Researches highlight couple violence against women as a serious problem, putting at risk victim’s autonomy. Pence and Paymar’s Power and Control Wheel core is formed by tactics of power and control mostly related with psychological, emotional, economic or social violence. Control tactics are efficient and violent without physical or sexual violence. Victimization processes – namely intimate terrorism situations – are a cause of victim’s isolation and dependency. Recent research focuses violent relationship breaking up processes. This chapter presents results of ‘Women victimized by intimate partner violence: practices and representations concerning violence’, a qualitative research project coordinated by Professor Maria das Dores Guerreiro (CIES, IUL-ISCTE) and carried out at CIES, IUL-ISCTE. The research focuses on women victimized by intimate partners who have left abusive relationships. These women were supported by Associação Portuguesa de Mulheres contra a Violência (AMCV), a Portuguese non-governmental organisation. Research aims to acknowledge processes of victimization within couples and the legitimacy of practices of violence across women’s lives. Methodologically, data was collected through five semi-structured interviews and the subsequent content analysis. Interviewees attend Hipátia, a group of women survivors of domestic violence, promoted by AMCV. Interviewees aged between 33 to 53 years old. Women discourses emphasize the importance of specialized professionals as key to the recognition of violence by the victim, reconstruction and definition of a life project after leaving an abusive relationship.

Kerry McElroy

This chapter takes a cross-cultural look at early silent film in three different cultures to examine how the ancient artistic trope of beautiful woman as tragically doomed and destined for destruction made the leap to the emergent medium of early cinema. This stereotypical woman is historically ubiquitous, from Eve to Pandora, from goddess mythology to Madame Bovary. Dating from the 1st century BC, Chinese poetry utilised the trope of hongyan boming: ‘beautiful women live unhappy lives’. In every culture where film takes hold as a cultural medium, the tragic beauty quickly follows, and with remarkable commonalities with her compatriots on other continents. I will situate this ancient archetype’s twentieth century cinematic counterparts in Shanghai cinema’s suicide icon Ruan Lingyu, Lydia Borelli’s tragic Italian diva, and iconoclastic Hollywood and Berlin star Louise Brooks. The chapter takes conflation as methodology, analysing both lives and roles and creating a synthesis of actress and character that is deliberate. In the period of focus, romanticisation of violence, suicide, and the idea of a tragic destiny as the price of beauty run not only through film history, but through biography. Thus this archetypal woman is not a response to the New Woman or unique to cinema but is as old as civilization itself. Whether in examination of ancient China, fin de siècle Italy, or twentieth century America, as long as there are associations between sex, death, and danger, culture will offer and mythologize the figure of the beautiful woman leading men, and ultimately herself, down the path to ruin. This chimerical woman can be made a study of in poetry, in painting, in music, or in literature. Her emergence in the early years of cinema merely shows that the figure of the beautiful woman as tragic and dangerous followed wherever new cultural technologies ventured. Feminist theory can be used to uncover why the embodied state of the actress is reflective of larger themes in the lives of women and the mimetic relationship between audience and star.

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David J. Galbreath, Ainius Lašas and Jeremy W. Lamoreaux

Continuity and Change in the Baltic Sea Region uncovers the Baltic States’ foreign policy transition from Socialist Republics to EU member-states. Situated between the Russian Federation and Northern Europe, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have had to manoeuvre within an often delicate sub-region. Since independence, the foreign policies of the Baltic States have been dominated by de-Sovietization and European integration. Lying at the crossroads between small state theory and identity politics, this analysis engages with the development of Baltic foreign policies as post-Soviet, small and transitioning states.
The authors argue that Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania dictated their early foreign policy agendas based on a process of identity construction and as a response to their regional environment. This process took the Baltic States from East to West in their foreign policy aspirations. Key factors in foreign policy making and implementation are discussed, as well as external factors that shaped Baltic foreign policy agendas. Overall, the book illustrates how continuity and change in the Baltic foreign policies has been shaped by both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ factors. It is a study in the foreign policies of transitioning states and in this regard illuminates a much larger research area beyond its geographic focus.

Things Done Change

The Cultural Politics of Recent Black Artists in Britain

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Eddie Chambers

1980s Britain witnessed the brassy, multifaceted emergence of a new generation of young, Black-British artists. Practitioners such as Sonia Boyce and Keith Piper were exhibited in galleries up and down the country and reviewed approvingly. But as the 1980s generation gradually but noticeably fell out of favour, the 1990s produced an intriguing new type of Black-British artist. Ambitious, media-savvy, successful artists such as Steve McQueen, Chris Ofili, and Yinka Shonibare made extensive use of the Black image (or, at least, images of Black peo¬ple, and visuals evocative of Africa), but did so in ways that set them apart from earlier Black artists. Not only did these artists occupy the curatorial and gallery spaces nominally reserved for a slightly older generation but, with aplomb, audacity, and purpose, they also claimed previously unimaginable new spaces. Their successes dwarfed those of any previous Black artists in Britain. Back-to-back Turner Prize victories, critically acclaimed Fourth Plinth commissions, and no end of adulatory media attention set them apart.
What happened to Black-British artists during the 1990s is the chronicle around which Things Done Change is built. The extraordinary changes that the profile of Black-British artists went through are dis¬cussed in a lively, authoritative, and detailed narrative. In the evolving history of Black-British artists, many factors have played their part. The art world’s turning away from work judged to be overly ‘political’ and ‘issue-based’; the ascendancy of Blair’s New Labour government, determined to locate a bright and friendly type of ‘diversity’ at the heart of its identity; the emergence of the precocious and hegemonic yBa grouping; governmental shenanigans; the tragic murder of Black Londoner Stephen Lawrence – all these factors and many others underpin the telling of this fascinating story.
Things Done Change represents a timely and important contribution to the building of more credible, inclusive, and nuanced art histories. The book avoids treating and discussing Black artists as practitioners wholly separate and distinct from their counterparts. Nor does the book seek to present a rosy and varnished account of Black-British artists. With its multiple references to Black music, in its title, several of its chapter headings, and citations evoked by artists themselves, Things Done Change makes a singular and compelling narrative that reflects, as well as draws on, wider cultural mani¬festations and events in the socio-political arena.

Phil Fitzsimmons

Utilising an approach grounded in the naturalistic paradigm, this qualitative study illuminates the writing development of one child through the transition from home to school. Rather than focusing on a systemic linguistic development, which has dominated the educational language field, this project focused on the child’s sense of ‘agency and component processes.’ The subject of the study, ‘Tim,’ was observed over a four-year period. Data analysis was based on dualistic approach incorporating the inductive processes of ‘Grounded Theory’ and the analytical narrative procedures of ‘Performity Discourse.’ The resulting synthesis revealed the large amount of self-reflective talk involved in the child’s learning to write process, as well as his use of a multi-strategy approach. Rather than moving constantly through successive phases, as described by other researchers, ‘Tim’s’ development was also characterised by a cyclical and recursive pattern, utilising the writing strategies in a staged development of ‘Prephonemic Awareness, Phonemic Awareness and Approximation to Adult Convention.’ It would appear that young children have a heightened sense of the complexity of writing, and given the opportunity make continued ‘approximations’ to attain adult conventionality and complexity. This study also revealed the key role caregivers play in fostering a child’s sense of ‘habitus’ and that writing for young children should be cultivated and not imposed. The study as whole also reveals the means by which a child’s pre-school writing can be supported in the first year of school.

Signs of Masculinity

Men in Literature 1700 to the Present

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Edited by Antony Rowland, Emma Liggins and Eriks Uskalis

Masculinity is becoming an increasingly popular area of study in areas as diverse as sociology, politics and cultural studies, yet significant research is lacking into connections between masculinity and literature. Signs of Masculinity aims at beginning to fill the gap. Starting with an introduction to, and intervention within, numerous debates concerning the cultural construction of various masculinities, the volume then continues with an investigation of representations of masculinity in literature from 1700 to the present. Close readings of texts are intended to demonstrate that masculinity is not a theoretical abstract, but a definitive textual and cultural phenomenon that needs to be recognised in the study of literature. It is hoped that the wide-ranging essays, which raise numerous issues, and are written from a variety of methodological approaches, will appeal to undergraduate, postgraduates and lecturers interest in the crucial but under-researched area of masculinity.