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Carmel A. Levitan, Carmel A. Levitan, Charlotte L. Yang, Carmel A. Levitan, Charlotte L. Yang, Yih-Hsin Alison Ban, Carmel A. Levitan, Charlotte L. Yang, Yih-Hsin Alison Ban, Noelle R. B. Stiles, Carmel A. Levitan, Charlotte L. Yang, Yih-Hsin Alison Ban, Noelle R. B. Stiles and Shinsuke Shimojo

We previously reported our discovery that temporal rate adaptation transfers bidirectionally between vision and audition. Temporal frequency channels are linked across audition and vision (Yao et al., 2009); but duration channels for audition and vision are thought to be independent (Heron et al., 2012). We used our paradigm to characterize linkages between auditory and visual channels by measuring whether or not transfer of adaptation still occurs as the discrepancy between adaptation and test frequencies increases. Participants ran in three experimental sessions, each with a different adaptation frequency. They were trained, using feedback, to classify flickering visual stimuli (ranging in frequency from 3.25–4.75 Hz) as fast or slow (relative to 4 Hz). They then classified 140 pre-adaptation test trials with feedback, providing a baseline. Afterwards, 30 adaptation trials of auditory stimuli beeping at either 5, 8, or 12 Hz were presented, followed by 20 alternating blocks of 7 adaptation and 7 post-adaptation test trials (without feedback). We compared the PSE of the pre- and post-adaptation trials to quantify the cross-modal transfer and found that the aftereffect occurred when the adaptation frequency was most similar to the test frequencies but was no longer present with larger discrepancies. These results rule out response bias as a plausible explanation for our original findings and suggest that the timing mechanisms underlying rate perception are consistent with supramodal channels that are tuned.


Claire O’Callaghan

homoerotic component of Wilde’s novel. In different ways, Reed, Self and Bauer not only extend but also make explicit the homosexual subtext in Wilde’s novel. By contrast, film adaptations of Dorian Gray tend to resist the homoerotic components of the novel to instead over-emphasise Dorian

Árni Kristjánsson

Seeing and Perceiving 24 (2011) 37–51 The Functional Benefits of Tilt Adaptation Árni Kristjánsson ∗ Faculty of Psychology, School of Health Sciences, Gimli, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland Received 14 September 2010; accepted 23 December 2010 Abstract Many have argued that effects of

Peter Hill

cannot take into account the substantial changes made in translation, nor the successive metamorphoses that a single original may undergo in a given language. 5 The latter point is especially evident in the case of the successive adaptations of Télémaque into Arabic. In this study, I keep the global

Jan McDonald

1 Introduction The legal dimensions of adapting to the impacts of climate change have been late arrivals to Australian climate law. ‘Adaptation law’ continues to be the poor relative of mitigation law, policy, practice, and scholarship, lacking a clearly defined scope, the moral authority and


Edited by Isabelle Desportes and Joseph Schrével

The phylum Apicomplexa is characterized by the unique cell organisation of the zoites, the infective stages of unicellular parasites previously designated as Sporozoa. Apicomplexa includes Coccidian and Hematozoa well known for human and veterinary diseases they cause, such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, babesiosis, coccidiosis, and the large group of Gregarines, the early branching Apicomplexa. Gregarines are parasite of invertebrates and urochordates and they performed an extraordinary radiation from the marine and terrestrial hosts known from the Cambrian biodiversity explosion. After the basic publication in the Traité de Zoologie by Grassé in 1953, this second edition updates the knowledge with information provided by new technologies such as electron microscopy, biochemistry and molecular biology and to enlighten their high diversity of adaptation to invertebrate hosts living in a diversity of biotopes. The extracellular development of Gregarines, the considerable diversification of their cell cortex, their wide distribution in Annelids, Crustaceans, Echinoderms, Myriapods or Insects with about hundred thousands of species contribute to the understanding of many biological aspects of the pathogenic Apicomplexa. Since 1953, taxonomical reviews on Gregarines were published in the Illustrated Guide of Protozoa. In this supplement, there is a special emphasis on the hosts.

Contributors include: Stuart Goldstein, Ryoko Kuriyama, Gérard Prensier, Jiri Vavra, Lawrence Howard Bannister, Jean François Dubremetz.

Without the financial support of academic and non-profit organisations the edition of this volume would not have been possible. Many thanks to the LabEx BCDiv Biological and Cultural Diversities: Origins, Evolution, Interactions, Future, Groupement des Protistologues de Langue Francaise (GPLF), Société des Amis du Muséum, Société Française de Parasitologie for their generous grants.

Elena Azanon, Elena Azanon, Flavia Cardini, Elena Azanon, Flavia Cardini and Patrick Haggard

During the apparently simple act of localizing a tactile event on the skin, the brain must realign spatial representations according to current body posture, from somatotopic (skin based) to externally based coordinates. Previous studies have highlighted the obligatory nature of this process which seems to be carried out every time a tactile event is felt, even when posture remains constant (Yamamoto and Kitazawa, 2001). Nonetheless, the way this system is modulated by continued adaptation to a static posture is still largely unknown. Here, we address the way posture changes affect the accuracy in which touch is remapped. Participants in our experiment were asked to compare the location of two tactile stimuli presented to either hand when posture of the limbs was frequently changed (crossed vs. uncrossed) or else, remained constant throughout an entire block. We found that frequent changes induces more errors when localizing touch using external space, even though proprioceptive signal decreases with time. Furthermore, the advantage of keeping the arms in a constant posture was observed in a trial by trial basis: in the interleaved condition, participants’ responses were more precise when the previous trial had been performed in the same position. Previous results suggest that remapping might take place using a canonical configuration of the hands (Azanon and Soto-Faraco, 2008; Yamamoto and Kitazawa, 2001). If this were the case, then a change of posture might require a new ‘remapping model’ to be activated, which might require some time. These results suggest that the remapping system can be quickly adapted, suggesting a certain amount of short term plasticity that allows for an adaptive use of postural information.


Donald E. Pease

, published a review of Albee’s next play, an adaptation of James Purdy’s novel Malcolm , which concluded with a variation of the complaint Roth lodged against Tiny Alice : “And the only theme that really comes through clearly—as it also did in Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? and Tiny Alice is of woman

A. Herrel, R. Van Damme, B. Vanhooydonck, A. Zaaf and P. Aerts

, to an optimal fit between 'design' and ecology. However, the adaptation process may be impeded or slowed down by several constraints or trade-offs between conflicting functions. This is frequently observed by ecomorphological studies focusing on lower taxonomic levels: form-function relationships get