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Christiane von Stutterheim, Ralf Nüse and Jorge Murcia-Serra

Abstract

The paper reports on a series of empirical studies in which language-specific patterns in the construal of events are investigated. The background of the studies is given by crosslinguistic analyses of the verbalisation of events in film renarrations. The results for English, German, Spanish and Arabic suggest that grammaticised categories are relevant for the strategies which speakers of different languages rely on in verbalising information. These results are confirmed by three studies which approach the question from different aspects. In the first investigation speakers are asked to verbalise a sequence of unrelated events presented on a screen. The hypothesis was that speakers of different languages select different components of the depicted scenes for verbalisation. In the second study the voice onset times for these verbalisations are measured to see whether the different event constructions are reflected in the planning processes of the utterances. In the third study comprehension of sentences referring to events is tested, using a self paced reading experiment. The results of the individual studies converge in showing that the construal of events for verbalisation follows language specific patterns.

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Edited by Andrée Borillo, Carl Vetters and Marcel Vuillaume

L'étude de la référence verbale constitue un domaine très vaste où se dégagent des problèmatiques diverses et complexes. Ce recueil, qui intéressera tous les linguistes qui s'occupent du verbe, réunit des travaux représentatifs de la diversité de la sémantique verbale. La place importante accordée à l'expression de la temporalité ne surprendra personne: le lecteur trouvera dans ce volume des études consacrées à la temporalité du verbe en général, à des temps verbaux particuliers (passé simple, imparfait), à la référence verbale en surbordonnée temporelle ou à l'interaction entre le temps du verbe et les compléments prépositionnels. Ce n'est pas seulement la valeur temporelle des temps verbaux qui est étudiée ici: certaines contributions s'occupent spécifiquement de leur morphologie et de leurs valeurs modales. La diversité des approches théoriques (la logique temporelle reichenbachienne, les repérages énonciatifs de Culioli, la pragmasémantique de Kleiber, la grammaire fonctionnelle de Dik, l'analyse temporelle de la fiction narrative de Vuillaume, etc.) permet de jeter des regards intéressants et parfois inattendus sur un domaine qui passionne actuellement beaucoup de linguistes. Si la problématique aspectuelle, que certains considèrent comme plus fondamentale pour la référence verbale que sa temporalité, n'est pas traitée ici, c'est parce que Cahiers Chronos y consacre son volume 2 intitulé Regards sur l'aspect.

Series:

Anna Bauer

In The Morphosyntax of the Noun Phrase in Hieroglyphic Luwian Anna H. Bauer provides a full and detailed account of the noun phrases in Hieroglyphic Luwian, an Anatolian language attested mainly in inscriptions from the first millennium BC. The available material is analysed according to the different elements found in the NP, and a chapter each is devoted to determination, quantification, modification and apposition.
Along with discussing the structures from a synchronic point of view, Anna Bauer also draws parallels to neighbouring languages and ongoing changes within HLuwian itself. It is shown how other languages have left their mark on HLuwian and how that influences the HLuwian system.

Wh-Clauses in English

Aspects of Theory and Description

Series:

Joe Trotta

This study provides the first description-oriented, theoretically-unaligned account of wh-clauses in Modern English. The author employs a data-based approach to examine aspects of both generative and non-generative work as regards their relative strengths and weaknesses.
Wh-clauses in English: Aspects of Theory and Description is a unique combination of statistical findings and qualitative analysis. It is not only underpinned by a systematic investigation of the Brown University corpus but also includes attested material from other sources such as the British National Corpus, the CobuildDirect corpus as well as material gleaned from the internet.
The qualitative and quantitative analyses are combined to approach a wide range of theoretical and descriptive issues, such as wh-movement, landing-sites for moved wh-XPs, vacuous movement, island constraints, among others. Not insignificantly, many questions of indeterminacy are addressed, such as the interface of conjunctions and relative words, the problems of demarcation between interrogatives and free relatives as well as structural ambiguities between interrogatives and exclamatives.

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Edited by Estelle Moline and Carl Vetters

Cet ouvrage propose de jeter un nouveau regard sur des questions qui sont au cœur des problématiques de linguistique française étudiés dans les Cahiers Chronos. Plusieurs auteurs étudient des questions de temps et d’aspect (Apothéloz & Nowakowska, Haas & Huyghe, Lauze, Lebas-Fraczak, Moline, Provôt ; Deslés & Vinzerich) ou des emplois modaux (Engel ; Forsgren & Sullet-Nylander, Lansari, Morency, Patard & Vermeulen). D’autres étudient la temporalité dans le discours (Bres, de Saussure), adoptent une perspective diachronique (De Mulder, Vetters) ou abordent la temporalité du point de vue de l’enseignement du FLE (Barbazan). La diversité des approches réunies dans ce volume fera avancer les débats et sera une source pour de nouvelles contributions.

New Frontiers of Corpus Research

Papers from the Twenty First International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora Sydney 2000

Series:

Edited by Pam Peters, Peter Collins and Adam S. Cohen

This volume presents highlights of the first ICAME conference held in the southern hemisphere, in papers on new kinds of corpora for business and communications technology, as well as those comprising computer-mediated communication and college newspapers. The latter yield lively insights into the digitized discourse of younger adults and non-professional writers -- speech communities that have been underrepresented in the standard English corpora. Other groups that are newly represented in research reported in this volume are bilingual users of English in Singapore, Hong Kong and China, as corpus data is brought to bear on second-language speech and writing. The proposed corpus of spoken Dutch profiled here will support research into its variation in different genres and contexts of use in the Netherlands and in Belgium. Research on new historical corpora from C15 to C18 is also reported, along with techniques for normalizing prestandardized English for computerized searching. Meanwhile papers on contemporary usage show some of the continual interplay between British and American English, in grammar and details of the lexicon that are important for English language teachers.

Form and Function of Parasyntactic Presentation Structures

A Corpus-based Study of Talk Units in Spoken English

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Joybrato Mukherjee

This study investigates prosody-syntax interactions from a functional perspective and based on authentic corpus data. Drawing on Halliday's well-known interpretation of the tone unit as an information unit, Halford's idea of a prosodically and syntactically defined talk unit and Esser's concept of abstract presentation structures, a modified talk unit model is developed. The talk unit is built up of one to many tone unit(s). The focus of both the quantitative and the functional analysis is on the interplay between prosodic status and syntactic status at tone unit boundaries by means of which talk units as parasyntactic units are established. The database is provided by a sample of about 50,000 words mainly taken from the London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English. The findings reveal that speakers have at their disposal and make use of prosody-syntax interactions in order to structure information effectively and to allow for or facilitate turn taking. This volume is not only of interest for corpus linguists, but for functionalists in general and intonationists in particular. In analysing the stylistic and pragmatic potential of talk units and applying corpus linguistic methodology, this study breaks new ground with regard to functional and empirical approaches to spoken English.

Series:

Edited by Emmanuelle Labeau and Pierre Larrivée

Les formes du passé constituent un écueil pour l'apprentissage du français langue étrangère ; même les apprenants les plus avancés échouent à maîtriser leur emploi. Si le manque d'équivalence forme à forme entre les temps des langues constitue une difficulté évidente, la complexité sémantique et distributionnelle des tiroirs français ne doit pas être négligée. Grammairiens et linguistes se sont efforcés de fournir des descriptions des tiroirs du passé mais leur travail, comme celui des didacticiens, s'est révélé inégal.
Les contributions retenues dans ce volume invitent à la réflexion critique en ce qui concerne les descriptions existantes des temps et les approches de leur enseignement. Sont envisagées la structuration du système ainsi que la constitution des tiroirs du point de vue synchronique, évolutif et contrastif, à partir de corpus de différentes variétés de français. La question de l'enseignement de ces notions à des apprenants du français langue étrangère et maternelle est aussi considérée dans les divers contextes de l'acquisition. C'est dans l'esprit d'un dialogue de plus en plus nécessaire entre application et modélisation qu'est proposé cet ouvrage, qui retiendra l'intérêt tant des praticiens que des théoriciens.