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police forces for political suppression was a characteristic of the Nazi state. Even if the German criminal police have special units to investigate in political crime, the separation from the political secret service ( Verfassungsschutz ) is still an important principle for democratic policing. In other

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

-in-chief of the Warsaw daily newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza) what he thought of lustra- tion, the German writer Jurgen Fuchs answered: 'If we do not solve this problem in a definite way, it will haunt us as Nazism did. We did not denazify ourselves, and this weighed on us for years.,6 The French historian Henri

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

during the Franco regime went into what the Russians call ‘inner exile’. There are important practical differences between an authoritar ian and a totali- tarian state. Totalitarian regimes, like Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, demand enthusiastic endorsement of their politics. Research is needed to

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

weak. Prior to Nuremberg, the Treaty of Sèvres of 10 August 1920, even if it never came into force, already stood as a clear proof that states condemned such criminal acts and that there existed some general principles applicable to all states, including Nazi Germany. Furthermore, some eminent legal

In: International Criminal Law Review

administration and its policies’ during the Maidan protests of 2013–2014. 69 If infringements of what amounts to political participation were central to events in Cambodia, Libya and Ukraine, they have been singled out even in situations that were otherwise ethnic in character. Consider Nazi Germany, where, as

In: International Criminal Law Review

period only a small number of Church officials gave support to the struggle against Fascism and Nazism. In general, locked in its blind struggle against the Communist movement, the Catholic Church linked arms with the forces of Hitler and Mus- solini ; in essence, against its own people and ultimately

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

, most experts point to the aftermath of the defeat of Nazi Germany, to changes in post-conflict resolution, in countermeasures, and in preventive strategies (against human atrocities), all of which marked the end of the classical period of international relations and the ‘second stage’ of modern icl

In: International Criminal Law Review

– state sovereignty as an instrument of progress rather than oppression. ScientiŽ cally and sociologically, international law as conceived by the men of 1873 was a relative failure. So were the parallel efforts of the mostly German scholars who attempted to describe and shape international law in

In: International Criminal Law Review

intrinsic immorality of his behaviour. Hence, in committing crimes against peace, the Nazis leaders should have been aware of the immoral character of their violence and foreseen that they would face criminal justice after the war. In particular the International Military Tribunal held that: [t]o assert

In: International Criminal Law Review

For example, the Nuremberg Tribunal referred to “the seizure of Austria and Czechoslovakia” by Nazi Germany through the invasion of armed forces across borders as examples of aggression. 32 Subsequently, the rare occasions where the UNSC has referred to events as acts of aggression have also all

In: International Criminal Law Review