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L. C. Santos, C. E. R. D. Alencar, F. A. M. Freire and A. C. Luchiari

. leptodactyla agonistic behaviour and (2) to analyse how a male interacts with conspecifics and heterospecifics that inhabit either the same area (immediate neighbour) or distinct areas of the mangroves. Therefore, as an ultimate goal, this study may contribute to increasing knowledge about the relation

M.J. Sommeijer, D. Koedam and I. Aguilar Monge

secretions onto the gyne. Finally, the function of a permanent presence of gynes is hypothesised as a way of regularly measuring the relative quality of the queen. KEY WORDS: stingless bees, Melipona favosa, gynes, queens, castes, trophallaxis, agonistic behaviour, reproduction. INTRODUCTION In stingless

Mark Ridgway and Trevor Friesen

effect on feeding behaviour, agonistic behaviour, nearest-neighbour distance or brood density of larvae and juveniles. Developmental phase, and not brood size, provided the only signiŽ cant effect on individual behaviour. The dispersion of broods in the nearshore zone of the lake increased throughout the

Noriko Katsu, Kazunori Yamada and Masayuki Nakamichi

, such as approach within arm-reach, physical contact, and grooming, as well as agonistic behaviours, such as retreat, threat, and aggression by the all-occurrence method. We also recorded the vocalizations of subjects and interacting individuals in the same way. The total observation time was 7130 min

Brian A. Hazlett

behavior patterns involved in an agonistic interaction, and were used only once. After observations, the crabs were removed from their gastropod shells and the cephalothorax length measured. Sex was not recorded since other analyses of agonistic behavior of Clibanarius species had shown sex to be

Bengt Åkerman

the substratum for defence and escape reactions. Using the terminology of BROWN & HUNSPERGER (1963) defence and escape reactions, however, only form parts of an "agonistic" behaviour com- pled. In a complete "agonistic" system more aggressive elements are also included. A more aggressive behaviour

Susan J. Neil

& PARKER, 1976; PARKER & RUBENSTEIN, 1981). This paper describes research on the agonistic behaviour of breeding pairs of the firemouth cichlid, Cichlasoma meeki. The predictions tested are based on simple game theoretic models which are discussed in detail in the papers cited. Methods Observations were

Karen Davis and Robert Huber

, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA) (Accepted: 16 January 2007) Summary Agonistic behaviour of crayfish has been studied extensively in laboratory settings where pairs or groups of individuals are allowed to interact within an experimental arena. Crayfish agonistic behaviour within its natural context, however

Susan J. Neil

alone or concurrently with any agonistic behaviour pat- tern. Since no water is pumped over the gills during the display, it cannot be performed indefinitely and imposes a cost on the displayer. Methods The study system and experimental methods are described in full elsewhere (NEIL, 1983). Breeding

R. Shine and M. Firmage

combat bouts were observed. We interpret the first type (ritualised "wrestling" matches between large adult males) as a reflection of sexual competition. This behaviour was seen in snakes from each of the island populations investigated, including Tasmania. Agonistic behaviour was exhibited by females