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John H. Knox

supported by climate-finance mechanisms respect and protect all human rights, including the rights of information, participation, and freedom of expression and association. Every state should also ensure that its legal system provides for effective remedies for all human rights violations, including those

Marie-Claire Cordonier Segger, Peter Holmgren and D. Andrew Wardell

climate finance and ghg mitigation schemes may lead to investment law claims of ‘indirect expropriation’. 97 States choose whether their measures will be limited to a particular sector or are economy-wide in application, and which jurisdictions will be subjected to (or allowed entry into) the

Benoit Mayer

rights in the two countries examined, even beyond the scope of the (non-binding) UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. 22 This finding should lead scholars to question the expectation that recipients of international climate finance will comply with new or emerging ‘international

Ruwantissa ABEYRATNE

environmental impact of aircraft engine emissions. At its meeting on 14-15 April 2011, the G20 Finance Ministers requested the World Bank (WB) for a report on climate finance, suggesting that WB work with Regional Development Banks and the IMF in coordination with other relevant organizations. The Finance

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes and André Nollkaemper

producing new aims, rather than the instrument for fostering existing ones. Let us think, for instance, of global climate governance. Cooperation between international institutions has paved the way for the creation of new tools, such as those of climate finance through trust funds. 1 Not only have these

Alexander Zahar

ready reference exists for excessiveness in the subtle language of the climate change problem. Excessive in per-capita terms? Against a business-as-usual line? Factoring in emission trading or climate finance? Taking account of states’ natural endowments, carbon outsourcing, cost of living, and

Francesco Sindico

to sustainable development’, 10(3) International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 233–248 (2010). 10 See A. Michaelowa and J. Buen, ‘The cdm gold rush’, in A. Michaelowa (ed.), Carbon markets or climate finance? , Routledge, 2012, 1–38; S. Böhm and S. Dabhi (eds

Nigel Bankes and Seline Trevisanut

de Rijn, 2011); Y. Selivanova (ed), Regulation of Energy in International Trade Law, wto , nafta and Energy Charter (Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den Rijn, 2011); R. B. Stewart, B. Kingsbury and B. Rudyk (eds), Climate Finance: Regulatory and Funding Stategies for climate Change and


Sherrie M. Steiner

that may take decades, if it ever happens at all. Consider, for example, the case of the C20. Civil society draws together a diverse network of organizations concerned across a range of issues affecting vulnerable communities including development, trade, climate financing, and food security. 28 Peter

Doha and Warsaw

Reflections on Climate Law and Policy

Michael Bothe

. 47 Among the demands in the decision, a request for ‘information to increase clarity on the expected levels of climate finance mobilized from different sources’ (which would mean more transparency) deserves note. 48 A new element put on the financial negotiation agenda by the Doha