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Maria Elo and Päivi Jokela

The socio-cultural context of entrepreneurship and bi-directional interplay between entrepreneurship and its socio-cultural context are under-explored. Especially, Diaspora entrepreneurship differs from mainstream entrepreneurship as Diaspora members with manifold social ties are embedded in multiple cultures. These strong social and entrepreneurial ties provide them with various resources that can also be constraining, which might bind them to invest or act in a particular manner. In this chapter, we examine the ‘immigrant effect’ and construct a model of socio-cultural impacts on the drivers of first generation, providing novel perspectives on the phenomenon. Diaspora entrepreneurship. Theoretically, we build on social network, entrepreneurship, and Diaspora entrepreneurship theories when examining diasporans and their strong ties. Our unique, socio-cultural focal group is Bukharian Jews, and we employ the methodology of multiple case studies on entrepreneurs in Uzbekistan and Israel.

Thomas Kronschläger and Eva Sommer

Ever since the implementation of the LHC at CERN, visions of apocalyptical scenarios, involving ‘black holes’, ‘dark matter’, ‘strange matter’ and so forth, were propagated by the media. The field in which CERN is operating has been raising concerns and anxieties, leading to several lurid newspaper articles in many European countries; it even resulted in an action for injunction at the European Court of Human Rights, filed by a private institution. In an interdisciplinary qualitative approach, drawing on Keller’s methodology ‘sociology of knowledge approach to discourse’ (SKAD), the public discourse on CERN’s LHC will be analysed. Using a sample of journalistic texts, underlying patterns will be classified, categorised and analysed separately. The SKAD approach seems to be suitable for analysis here, given the problem of distribution of knowledge appears to be a relevant factor.

Gabby Riches

This chapter explores how embodied, lived heavy metal music spaces are produced by and through the exigencies of subversive movement and performance. By drawing upon Thrift’s (2007) work on ‘non-representational theory’, McCormack’s (2008) research on moving bodies, and Driver’s (2011) concept of subcultural embodiment, I examine the ways in which subversive performances and movement such as moshing are integral to the production of creating meaningful heavy metal musical spaces within the Leeds metal scene. Within these spaces fans are able to grasp, touch, play with and feel all the contours of being part of an underground subculture. Lastly, the chapter discusses the use of a ‘moshography’, a performative methodology that emphasises the ways in which movement, embodiment, gender, and spaces messily intersect and intertwine in everyday encounters within the Leeds metal scene.


Geert Lernout


Philology is a historical discipline and as such, it cannot fail to be interested in its own origins. From its earliest forms in Hellenistic Alexandria, philology has attempted to understand and preserve older texts. With the development of a Christian book-body of texts in Greek and later also in Latin, this discipline only became relevant again in the Renaissance, when numerous new texts were rediscovered. In the next few centuries the new culture of the Republic of Letters led to a flowering of classical philology, which stressed the common European culture. Romantic scholars applied the new methodologies to vernacular texts and this in its turn led to ‘national’ philologies which began to lead their own lives.

Joanne Metivier

This chapter is based on PhD research looking at how competing conceptions of creative writing are articulated in an MA Creative Writing workshop. Drawing on observation of workshop sessions and interviews with students and tutors the research explores how participants identify with particular discourses when giving and receiving feedback and disavow certain subject positions in constructing their own. The chapter focuses on three workshop participants, Beth, Peter and Laurie, as they discuss Laurie’s draft chapter. In the chapter, I argue that the ‘creative writing’ subject is discursively produced via psychosocial processes of identification. The chapter explores how within interaction these identifications are articulated around competing signifiers / subject positions. In the context of the writing workshop, differential relations between participants lead to particular articulations of ‘creative writing’ becoming privileged. These privileged subject positions increasingly act as a discursive centre exercising a totalising effect on contiguous positions. In addition, the chapter foregrounds the way complex tussles over meanings identified within the workshop and interview transcripts can be interpreted as both conscious and unconscious identifications with particular subject positions. These identifications interrupt straightforward interpretations of what Celia Hunt has called writer identities and point towards the impossibility of maintaining some kind of ‘pure’ methodological position / identity in relation to creative writing. The research contributes to the theoretical discussion of creative writing pedagogy in the university, and the broader debate about the status of emotion within the academy.

Hannah You

Reggio Emilia is an educational philosophy that encourages teachers, students and their parents to collaborate and actively engage with the environment. This study investigates how the Reggio Emilia design approach was translated architecturally for a kindergarten in an Australian context, and provides insights into the operation of this Reggio kindergarten and the impact that it is now having on the occupants. It evaluates the original architectural design intent of the Reggio Emilia early childhood learning environment against its spatial provision. The relationship that the Reggio Emilia approach facilitates between students and the environment, and the contribution of this approach to their learning, are also explored. Several key themes emerging from the Reggio values were identified in the literature. These were then used to inform an exploration of the kindergarten spaces and places. Architects and kindergarten teachers were interviewed with their experiences constituting the primary data of this study. Using a Grounded Theory methodology, systematic data coding and analysis were then conducted. Themes and concepts that emerged from this process include: differing interpretations of the Reggio Emilia philosophy; motivations for neglect of traditional external structures and play equipment; the impact of education for sustainability; and the positive effects that Reggio Emilia is having on the rest of the institution’s development.

Vanessa Wijngaarden

Understanding Maasai perceptions of whiteness can give insight in how and why images based on racial constructs continue to be (re)produced. Embedded in anthropological methods I used Q methodology with illiterate people to create detailed mindmaps of their images of ‘the other’ which can be compared to make visible more general social perspectives. The image that Maasai from a small village in Tanzania have of what they call ‘whites’ is remarkably positive and consistent among a variety of demographic categories. ‘Whites’ are characterised as people of God, having a white heart. They are described as extremely capable and virtuous, which distinguishes them from Maasai. However, they also share with Maasai a certain sociability and familiarity. Under the influence of increased interaction, negative characteristics and mistrust are added to the extremely positive image, however without replacing the positive traits. The stubborn character of the positive characteristics in the Maasai’ views leads to an overall contradictory image of whites as having a double character. These views are reflected in a mythological story that explains the differences and similarities between Maasai and ‘whites’ while prescribing and legitimating their relationship and behaviour towards each other in terms of a mythical blood relationship. As is the case with tourists’ image of Maasai as ‘noble savages,’ Maasai’ idea of ‘whites’ as capable and virtuous, has an ideological function. It is a mythical image that was never constructed to adequately describe ‘the other’ but created to explain, legitimise and cope with the position of ‘the self’ vis-à-vis ‘the other.’

Jacque Lynn Foltyn

For 2,500 years, the members of western civilization have been searching for the ‘laws’ that separate a beautiful face or figure from more ordinary ones. The human face and body have been inscribed in a circle, spread-eagled on a grid, quantified mathematically, and analysed geometrically. Today, a cadre of evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists and cosmetic surgeons, intent on uncovering beauty’s secret formula, link the look of beauty with reproductive fitness, insisting that good looks require minute symmetries, precise waist-to-hip ratios, jaw types, skin shades, hair textures and lengths, etc., and contending that computer programs have allowed them to construct the very face of female beauty. This chapter argues that most of these declarations are pseudoscience masquerading as scientific ‘fact’ and that the ‘science of beauty’ continually advances new theories that refute previous ones, giving short shrift to claims for universality. It provides interdisciplinary evidence from the humanities, social sciences, biological and neurosciences, and features interviews with some of the leading scientists of vision and the brain about how what is proposed as beauty ‘rules’ is largely subjective, runs contrary to historical and biological evidence, and can be attributed to more obvious sources: attempts to validate the theorists’ own taste, the homogenization processes of worldwide media, and flawed methodologies.

Nuno Oliveira

Issues of cultural diversity and governance have been on the agenda with regard to urban paradigms seeking to accommodate cultural diversity driven by a globalized world. Globalization replaced nation states with cities as the main nodes in the system of cultural and capital flow. These new urbanscapes feature particular conditions of interaction corresponding to what is termed ‘quotidian transversality’. The space where the contact zones unfold in everyday practice is not, however, as unplanned and spontaneous as is sometimes suggested. By looking into the production of two ‘diversity festivals’ we argue that this space is not just constructed in interaction but it is intersected by systemic forces outside its supposedly inherent practical rituals and negotiations. Such forces range from urban planning, hosting policies, and strategies of political actors to the market. These forces are all intertwined in what we call the production of interculturality. Comparing two ‘diversity festivals’ we seek to understand how interculturality fits urban planning strategies and is discursively produced with a view to create a certain image of the city and the cultural groups living in it. Methodologically the research utilized a mix of multi-situated ethnography and traditional qualitative sociological research. Comparison was carried out in neighbourhoods in downtown Lisbon and Granada.

Andrew Cope

This input introduces the fresh epistemological potential which might be teased from some comparison of the traditional figure of the communal mystic, or shaman, with examples of early cinema’s slapstick clowns: performers who might endure in a popular and a philosophical relevance, through their critical location at the dawn of a new age of technology. Seizing on the work of Buster Keaton in particular, the contribution considers some representative footage as if it were the visual utterance of a sage—perhaps one trying to rescue a sublime materiality from the threat of the super-functionalism that would come to define late modernity. By way of its comparative method the chapter reflects, as it invokes, the content and mood of an overarching research agenda, which challenges the fragmenting ontological distinction of people from those material objects, which tend to be perceived as inert. The subsequent reframing of Keaton’s slapstick makes some vital connections with ancient drama, contemporary performance studies, and the burgeoning material culture project. The methodological returns, of this interdisciplinary approach, help to illuminate just how this Keaton’s comedy might work to heal the enduring rift with a process-earth. But as the performance and materiality discourses intertwine, they also conspire to provide some reminder of a shamanic spirit that withstands in any dwelling on the productivity of encounters—as this accepts pedagogical varieties such as this one.