1 Introduction Does “magic” pertain usefully to the thing that is created, combined, or simply imbued with power over the course of a spell or ritual process? Many of the texts in the corpora of ancient spells culminate in the designation of some object that focuses the rite and materializes the
Andrei A. Orlov
The study investigates the ritual of anointing with the oil of the resurrection found in 2 Enoch. 2 Enoch 22:9 portrays the archangel Michael anointing Enoch with delightful oil, the ointment of glory which transforms the patriarch into a celestial creature. According to some rabbinic materials this oil of the resurrection which is responsible for the change of human mortal nature into the glorious state of a celestial being will come at the eschatological time from the head of the Deity.
In many Eastern Churches, there is tension between the language that is used in worship and the actual vernacular tongue. This issue has to do with cultural and religious identity, questions of unity and uniformity of ecclesiastical worship, and with the intelligibility of liturgical rites. In this article, firstly, I sketch the current situation in diverse Eastern Churches (Syriac, Armenian, Coptic and Ethiopian-Eritrean Christianity, Byzantine-rite Churches, and the ‘diaspora’ in the Western world). Secondly, I discuss some fundamental theological and ritual-liturgical considerations on our subject.
function in a similar way across the ancient cultures. In a general sense, these terms work as part of a flexible and evolving vocabulary for ritual practices (and their specialists) that some cultural institutions or movements deem ambiguous or even illegitimate. Different cultures, their religious
but also on a claim of ritual power, controlled by agents of the “truth” and serving as evidence of their authority. It is thus no wonder that the writings of Jewish élites strong enough to bequeath their views to future generations dismissed “other” agents of supernatural power as deviants
Two of the oldest Christian Paschal homilies, one by Melito of Sardis and the other of unknown origin (preserved under the names of Hippolytus of Rome and John Chrysostom), testify to the expectation of the descent of the divine and salvific glory during the Paschal night. I would call the theological doctrine behind this liturgical practice glory-soteriology or kabod-soteriology. Rabbinic materials such as the targums Neofiti 1 and Pseudo-Jonathan attest to a similar expectation on the night of the festival of Pesach. The salvific power of this glory seems to constitute the first rationale for this expectation, and the Festival of Pascha the privileged time for the divine descent and manifestation. Since further investigation identifies similar elements in the writings of Philo of Alexandria, the present study proposes what might be called a «two-branched» theory: one might reasonably suppose that both the Christian and the Jewish-rabbinic expectations of the descent of the salvific glory of Pascha may constitute two different developments of a common matrix in the Second Temple festival of Passover. Major doctrinal and ritual shifts emerge in Christian worship where Jesus Christ took the place of Yahweh or of his Word.
This article presents a reflection on the function of liturgical scenes in hagiography. First, it considers two models representing the interface between liturgy and hagiography: ‘hagiography in the liturgy’ (Rose) and ‘liturgy in hagiography’ (Rouwhorst). The former addresses the incorporation of hagiographic material in liturgical sources as well as the performative potential of both the liturgy and hagiographic texts. The latter focuses on liturgical material in hagiographic writings and, by extension, on hagiography as a Fundgrube for liturgical traditions. Both models highlight the important notion of performance. Next, through the lens of these two models, the article discusses four samples of hagiography: its treatment of Martyrium Polycarpi and Passio Perpetuae et Felicitatis as well as the section on Vita Pauli and Vita Macrinae both juxtapose a liturgically stylised prayer and a narrative passage. Finally, my interpretation of the material is guided by the perspective of the text’s recipient, asking what the inclusion of liturgical scenes in hagiography might have effected. I suggest that an audience primed in liturgical experience would have responded intensely to the depiction of transforming rituals in sanctifying texts. Thus, the liturgical scenes in hagiography offer a gateway to emotional connection with the content of the text, thereby helping the readers/listeners participate in the saintly story, a process that mirrors the transformative potential of the liturgy.