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For example, the Nuremberg Tribunal referred to “the seizure of Austria and Czechoslovakia” by Nazi Germany through the invasion of armed forces across borders as examples of aggression. 32 Subsequently, the rare occasions where the UNSC has referred to events as acts of aggression have also all

In: International Criminal Law Review

time in this publica- tion, with the criminal law of the European Community. At a time when knowledge of, and information on, criminal laws in the EC countries began to become an even greater necessity, the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and Interna- tional Criminal Law in Freiburg, Germany embarked

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

- lished - such as Contemporary Crises and Crime and Social Justice, the German 2. St. Cohen, Intellectual scepticism and political commitment; the case of radical criminology (Amsterdam, 1990). 3. R. van Swaaningen, Critical criminology; visions from Europe (London, 1997), pp. 82-84. 43

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

response to public outcry against their presence. Th ey were all politically ‘safe’ prosecutions, as the Nazi regime had long since disappeared and had been univer- sally condemned; indeed, Germany - perhaps the most interested state - was happy to see these remnants of its past prosecuted. Whether these

In: International Criminal Law Review

, however, is that in the theoretical scenario, that the Nuremberg Tribunal did decide to apply domestic criminal law, e.g. Nazi Criminal Law, the Tribunal need not have actually exonerated German offenders on the ground that they were compliant with said laws. On the contrary, the laws themselves could

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

prosecuting Nazis war criminals in their respective zones of occupation in Germany. See T. Taylor, “Nuremberg Trials, War Crimes and International Law”, 450 International Conciliation (1949) 243-371, at 254-5; V. Maugham, U.N.O. and War Crimes (London: John Murray, 1951) 20-22. See also Th e United Nations

In: International Criminal Law Review

” in Austria and the treatment of espionage under the criminal laws of Austria, Germany and Switzerland; 6 rehabilitation as a positive obligation under the case law of the European Court of Human Rights; 7 the impact of immigration on crime rates; 8 and the powers of the Dutch police to

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

with crimes committed in Europe (although the crimes of Nazi Germany stretched beyond the boundaries of Europe). The STL deals with crimes committed in the Middle East, while the ICC can potentially deal with crimes committed anywhere in the world but so far has mainly dealt with crimes committed in

In: International Criminal Law Review

Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the Provisional Government of the French Republic , 5 June 1945, avalon.law. yale.edu /wwii/ger01.asp, accessed 13 May 2018, which set out the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany and provided the following: ‘The principal Nazi leaders as specified by the

In: International Criminal Law Review

number of homicides that have been committed. Th us, thinking along the lines of the doctrines put forward by Alicia Gil Gil 22 on the fi rst ruling made by the German Supreme Court in relation to genocide, the STF concluded that “each distinct foreseen action—‘killing’, ‘grievous bodily harm

In: International Criminal Law Review