Sander van Hees

1 Introduction Since the introduction of the renewable energy directive ( red ) in 2009, the Member States of the European Union are bound to mandatory renewable energy targets. 1 Under this directive Member States must encourage the production of energy from ‘all types of renewable

Carlos Soria-Rodríguez

1 Introduction The European Union has increased its efforts to promote the development of renewable energies, 2 including marine renewable energies, 3 in order to meet the ultimate objective of the unfccc —the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a

Mehdi P. Amineh and Wina H. J. Crijns-Graus

1 Introduction Security of energy supply is an important part of the long-term development goals of the eu , as it supports key policy objectives such as competitiveness and stability. Concerns for energy security have been triggered by declining European energy production as well as the

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Olga Khrushcheva

1 Introduction The eu -Russia energy relations are widely discussed in the literature, 1 but many analyses tend to focus on the securitization of such relations, caused by the high level of interdependence and clash of interests between Russia and the eu Member States. Currently, the eu

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Olga Khrushcheva

1 Introduction The eu -Russia energy relations are widely discussed in the literature, 1 but many analyses tend to focus on the securitization of such relations, caused by the high level of interdependence and clash of interests between Russia and the eu Member States. Currently, the eu

Ögütçü, Mehmet

China is truly an energy superpower in the world system, being the second largest consumer and the third largest producer of primary commercial energy. On a per-capita basis, however, China's primary energy consumption is about half of the world average and less than one-tenth of the US average

Federico Esu and Francesco Sindico

1 Introduction The topic of energy did not feature among the former Millennium Development Goals ( mdg s), yet it now has a central place in the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals ( sdg s). 1 This represents an important step forward in abandoning the false myth that only fossil

David Leary and Miguel Esteban

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2009 DOI: 10.1163/092735209X12499043518269 Th e International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 24 (2009) 617–651 brill.nl/estu THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARINE AND COASTAL LAW Climate Change and Renewable Energy from the Ocean and Tides: Calming the Sea of

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Marianna Poberezhskaya

1 Introduction On 22 March 2013, the “Roadmap of eu -Russia Energy Cooperation until 2050” 1 was signed in Moscow. The first paragraph of the document emphasizes the mutual importance that Russia and the European Union ( eu ) represent for each other with regards to their energy security. 2 The

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Marianna Poberezhskaya

1 Introduction On 22 March 2013, the “Roadmap of eu -Russia Energy Cooperation until 2050” 1 was signed in Moscow. The first paragraph of the document emphasizes the mutual importance that Russia and the European Union ( eu ) represent for each other with regards to their energy security. 2 The