values of the damping of the dissipated energy. The various second moments of area, the moments of resistance, as well as the values of the dynamic shear modulus, represent adaptations to the function of the metacarpus. The values of the damping factors in the bony material are inversely related to the
absorb energy, generated by activity of fibres at the concave side, that is released in the successive opposite bending. KEY WORDS: titin isoforms, carp larvae, muscle, gel-electrophoresis, fast swimming, Cyprinus carpio L. INTRODUCTION Teleost larvae often hatch at small lengths (MOSER, 1996) with body
in the same light. Instead of the one-track flow of 'energy' typical of the models extant at the time, Piet envisaged a more subtle interplay between drives inhibiting one anogher and thereby setting free a third. Heterarchy again, if not an image of different parent-child relation- ships, a break
the alternatives, or are particularly economical of energy or materials. Engineering is the applied science of how things work, how they should be constructed to work best and how they can be made most economically. Physics is the basic science on which engineering is built.
4 The traditional
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114 the tapered epibranchials is postulated to be the main projection force (DEBAN et al., 1997). We suggest that a build up of a 'pre-stress' in the protractor and an associated storage of elastic energy in connective tissues
have less energy for survival and thus a shorter lifespan. This trade-off has been shown to exist in many species, although not in all cases (REZNICK, 1985).
228 In parasitoids there are various ways to measure the life history parame- ters involved in this trade-off. Reproduction can be measured
. Emphasis is laid on the relation between the energy spectrum around twilight- the period rabbits are most active-and the spectral sensitivities of the three photo- receptor systems, which seem well adapted to the ambient light circumstances. INTRODUCTION Earlier electrophysiological experiments by DODT
shift from heterotrophy ( 1 st-3rd order; P/R< l, where P is primary production and R is community respiration, both expressed as energy equivalents) to autotrophy (4th-5th order; P/R> 1) is a result of a progressive processing of organic matter (OM) and improved light access. Thus, the importance of
. CLAVERT. La biochimie de 1'ovogenese .......... 1 A. MONROY. Biochemical and structural changes at fertilization 18 8 E. Z E UT H E N. Biochemistry and metabolism of cleavage in the sea urchin egg, as resolved into its mitotic steps......... 31 P. TUFT. Energy changes in development .......... 59 T
meet the initial energy de- mands after the onset of the hypoxia exposure. To compensate most fish species activate anaerobic glycolysis resulting in accumulation of lactic acid (J0RGENSEN & MUSTAFA, 1980; DUNN & HOCHACHKA, 1986, 1987; DALLA VIA et al., 1994) and consequently in metabolic acidosis (B