The Black Boys and Blurred Lines

Reshaping Authority on the Pennsylvania Frontier

Jay B. Donis

their faces black for disguise, and ambushed the pack train near Sideling Hill. 2 The attack occurred about one o’clock in the afternoon of 6 March 1765 and demonstrated a disciplined effort to stop the goods from moving into Indian hands. The so-called “Black Boys” killed four horses belonging to

Heritage, Blackness and Afro-Cool

Styling Africanness in Amsterdam

Marleen de Witte

Introduction Who is an African? What does it mean to be African in Europe? Is African the same as Afro? Are black people automatically African? These questions are hotly debated among young people in Amsterdam today. On online discussion fora, Facebook pages, and blogs, and in

Yvon van der Pijl and Karina Goulordava

of the Netherlands, accompanied by numerous men and women dressed in costume as Black Pete ( Zwarte Piet ). They are eagerly greeted by thousands of Dutch people, children and adults alike, who have waited impatiently several weeks for their arrival. After the official welcoming event, most Dutch

Dale M. Coulter

was this culture that Zora Neale Hurston attempted to describe in The Sanctified Church as a form of protest against high-brow tendencies in the Black Church and a revitalizing element of black religion and music. 3 What Baldwin registered was a distinct form of black consciousness, even if, in his

Matthew Cobb

-83). 2 In the case of black pepper ( Piper nigrum ), attestation of its use may go as far back as the reign of Ramesses II (r. 1279-1213 BCE ) for it is possible that grains were used in his mummification (Gilboa and Namdar 2015: 272). Acknowledging such earlier movements of goods, it is also clear


Uhuru Portia Phalafala

The relationship between black South Africa and black America stretches as far back as the turn of the twentieth century. It is marked by intellectual exchanges and collaborations through letters and black periodicals, pan-African conferences, and sustained relations between South African exiles


Edited by Jorunn Svensen Gjerden, Kari Jegerstedt and Željka Švrljuga

Exploring the Black Venus Figure in Aesthetic Practices critically examines a longstanding colonial fascination with the black female body as an object of sexual desire, envy, and anxiety. Since the 2002 repatriation of the remains of Sara Baartman to post-apartheid South Africa, the interest in the figure of Black Venus has skyrocketed, making her a key symbol for the restoration of the racialized female body in feminist, anti-racist and postcolonial terms.

Edited by Jorunn Gjerden, Kari Jegerstedt, and Željka Švrljuga, this volume considers Black Venus as a product of art established and potentially refigured through aesthetic practices, following her travels through different periods, geographies and art forms from Baudelaire to Kara Walker, and from the Caribbean to Scandinavia.

Contributors: Kjersti Aarstein, Carmen Birkle, Jorunn Svensen Gjerden, Kari Jegerstedt, Ulla Angkjær Jørgensen, Ljubica Matek, Margery Vibe Skagen, Camilla Erichsen Skalle, Željka Švrljuga.

Black South African Autobiography After Deleuze

Belonging and Becoming in Self-Testimony


Kgomotso M. Masemola

In Black South African Autobiography After Deleuze: Belonging and Becoming in Self-Testimony, Kgomotso Michael Masemola uses Gilles Deleuze’s theories of immanence and deterritorialization to explore South African autobiography as both the site and the limit of intertextual cultural memory. Detailing the intertextual turn that is commensurate with belonging to the African world and its diasporic reaches through the Black Atlantic, among others, this book covers autobiographies from Peter Abrahams to Es’kia Mphahlele, from Ellen Kuzwayo to Nelson Mandela. It proceeds further to reveal wider dimensions of angst and belonging that attend becoming through transcultural memory. Kgomotso Michael Masemola successfully marshalls Deleuzean theories in a sophisticated re-reading that makes clear the autobiographers’ epistemic access to wor(l)ds beyond South Africa.


Merle Tönnies and Anna Lienen

1 Introduction In the realm of black British literature, the most dominant novelistic form of the 1990s was probably the ‘black British Bildungsroman ’ (cf. Rupp 8) with its appropriation of a traditional western genre for very different purposes. The features and varieties of this phenomenon have

Multimodality in Canadian Black Feminist Writing

Orality and the Body in the Work of Harris, Philip, Allen, and Brand


Maria Caridad Casas

This book develops a theory of multimodality – the participation of a text in more than one mode – centred on the poetry/poetics of Lillian Allen, Claire Harris, Dionne Brand, and Marlene Nourbese Philip. How do these poets represent oral Caribbean English Creoles (CECs) in writing and negotiate the relationship between the high literary in Canadian letters and the social and historical meanings of CECs? How do the latter relate to the idea of “female and black”?
Through fluid use of code- and mode-switching, the movement of Brand and Philip between creole and standard English, and written orality and standard writing forms part of their meanings. Allen’s eye-spellings precisely indicate stereotypical creole sounds, yet use the phonological system of standard English. On stage, Allen projects a black female body in the world and as a speaking subject. She thereby shows that the implication of the written in the literary excludes her body’s language (as performance); and she embodies her poetry to realize a ‘language’ alternative to the colonizing literary. Harris’s creole writing helps her project a fragmented personality, a range of dialects enabling quite different personae to emerge within one body. Thus Harris, Brand, Philip, and Allen both project the identity “female and black” and explore this social position in relation to others.
Considering textual multimodality opens up a wide range of material connections. Although written, this poetry is also oral; if oral, then also embodied; if embodied, then also participating in discourses of race, gender, sexuality, and a host of other systems of social organization and individual identity. Finally, the semiotic body as a mode (i.e. as a resource for making meaning) allows written meanings to be made that cannot otherwise be expressed in writing. In every case, Allen, Philip, Harris, and Brand escape the constraints of dominant media, refiguring language via dialect and mode to represent a black feminist sensibility.