their faces black for disguise, and ambushed the pack train near Sideling Hill. 2 The attack occurred about one o’clock in the afternoon of 6 March 1765 and demonstrated a disciplined effort to stop the goods from moving into Indian hands. The so-called “Black Boys” killed four horses belonging to
Reshaping Authority on the Pennsylvania Frontier
Jay B. Donis
Styling Africanness in Amsterdam
Marleen de Witte
Introduction Who is an African? What does it mean to be African in Europe? Is African the same as Afro? Are black people automatically African? These questions are hotly debated among young people in Amsterdam today. On online discussion fora, Facebook pages, and blogs, and in
Yvon van der Pijl and Karina Goulordava
of the Netherlands, accompanied by numerous men and women dressed in costume as Black Pete ( Zwarte Piet ). They are eagerly greeted by thousands of Dutch people, children and adults alike, who have waited impatiently several weeks for their arrival. After the official welcoming event, most Dutch
Dale M. Coulter
was this culture that Zora Neale Hurston attempted to describe in The Sanctified Church as a form of protest against high-brow tendencies in the Black Church and a revitalizing element of black religion and music. 3 What Baldwin registered was a distinct form of black consciousness, even if, in his
-83). 2 In the case of black pepper ( Piper nigrum ), attestation of its use may go as far back as the reign of Ramesses II (r. 1279-1213 BCE ) for it is possible that grains were used in his mummification (Gilboa and Namdar 2015: 272). Acknowledging such earlier movements of goods, it is also clear
Uhuru Portia Phalafala
The relationship between black South Africa and black America stretches as far back as the turn of the twentieth century. It is marked by intellectual exchanges and collaborations through letters and black periodicals, pan-African conferences, and sustained relations between South African exiles
Edited by Jorunn Svensen Gjerden, Kari Jegerstedt and Željka Švrljuga
Edited by Jorunn Gjerden, Kari Jegerstedt, and Željka Švrljuga, this volume considers Black Venus as a product of art established and potentially refigured through aesthetic practices, following her travels through different periods, geographies and art forms from Baudelaire to Kara Walker, and from the Caribbean to Scandinavia.
Contributors: Kjersti Aarstein, Carmen Birkle, Jorunn Svensen Gjerden, Kari Jegerstedt, Ulla Angkjær Jørgensen, Ljubica Matek, Margery Vibe Skagen, Camilla Erichsen Skalle, Željka Švrljuga.
Belonging and Becoming in Self-Testimony
Kgomotso M. Masemola
Merle Tönnies and Anna Lienen
1 Introduction In the realm of black British literature, the most dominant novelistic form of the 1990s was probably the ‘black British Bildungsroman ’ (cf. Rupp 8) with its appropriation of a traditional western genre for very different purposes. The features and varieties of this phenomenon have
Orality and the Body in the Work of Harris, Philip, Allen, and Brand
Maria Caridad Casas
Through fluid use of code- and mode-switching, the movement of Brand and Philip between creole and standard English, and written orality and standard writing forms part of their meanings. Allen’s eye-spellings precisely indicate stereotypical creole sounds, yet use the phonological system of standard English. On stage, Allen projects a black female body in the world and as a speaking subject. She thereby shows that the implication of the written in the literary excludes her body’s language (as performance); and she embodies her poetry to realize a ‘language’ alternative to the colonizing literary. Harris’s creole writing helps her project a fragmented personality, a range of dialects enabling quite different personae to emerge within one body. Thus Harris, Brand, Philip, and Allen both project the identity “female and black” and explore this social position in relation to others.
Considering textual multimodality opens up a wide range of material connections. Although written, this poetry is also oral; if oral, then also embodied; if embodied, then also participating in discourses of race, gender, sexuality, and a host of other systems of social organization and individual identity. Finally, the semiotic body as a mode (i.e. as a resource for making meaning) allows written meanings to be made that cannot otherwise be expressed in writing. In every case, Allen, Philip, Harris, and Brand escape the constraints of dominant media, refiguring language via dialect and mode to represent a black feminist sensibility.