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well as the shells’ attributes, influence the decision in different directions (e.g., growth necessitates shells with large IV/W ratios, but these may be too thin and brittle; Osorno et al., 2005); hence optimality theory (Krebs & Kacelnik, 1991; Kacelnik, 2006) should provide best framework to study

In: Behaviour

1. General Three issues of NJL appeared in 2015 with a total of 11 research articles, including: Ito Junko and Armin Mester, ‘The Perfect Prosodic Word in Danish’ (5–36), on Danish stød through the lens of Optimality Theory and as a means to determine the aspects of a perfect prosodic word

In: The Year’s Work in Modern Language Studies

dealing with extension has led to construction of apparatus such as ‘reduction rules’ applied to relative product strings pioneered by Lounsbury (1964) , and more recently, suggestions that Optimality Theory (another import from phonology, based on universal constraints) can be productively applied to

In: Journal of Language Contact

and their hosts. An optimality theory approach. — In: Parasitic birds and their hosts: studies in coevolution (Rothstein, S.I. & Robinson, S.K., eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 236-254. Rothstein, S.I. (1975). Mechanisms of avian egg-recognition: do birds know their own eggs? — Anim. Behav

In: Behaviour

lexicon and constraints on reranking. In J. Beckman, S. Urbanczyk and L. Walsh (eds) Papers in Optimality Theory , 181–210. Amherst: GLSA . Itô, Junko and Armin Mester. 1999. The structure of the phonological lexicon. In Tsjimura Natsuko (ed.) The Handbook of Japanese Linguistics , 62–100. Cambridge

In: Brill's Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics

, UCLA . Bat-El, Outi. 1994. The optimal acronym word in Hebrew. Proceedings of the 1994 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association . In Koskinen, Paivi (ed.), Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 23–37. Bat-El, Outi. 2003. The Fate of the Consonantal Root and the Binyan in Optimality

In: Brill's Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics

:144–181. McCarthy, John and Alan Prince. 1995. Faithfulness and reduplicative identity. In Jill Beckman, Laura Walsh and Suzanne Urbanczyk (eds.) University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 18: Papers in Optimality Theory . Amherst: Graduate Linguistic Student Association. 249–382. Most, Tova

In: Brill's Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics

defective vowel violates a constraint that is low-ranked against deleting defective segments, while la without its defective vowel would violate a higher-ranked constraint against deleting fully specified segments. The choice for a particular item can thus be decided by an Optimality Theory (OT

In: Towards a Theory of Denominals

idýll-ic, Miltón-ic, titán-ic etc.; he handles this in a constraint-based approach, appealing to a high ranking of faithfulness in the phonology (more specifically of metrical faithfulness in the stem-level constraint hierarchy countenanced in his framework, Stratal Optimality Theory

In: Indo-European Linguistics

based on the restrictive foot typology of Kager (1993) and optimality theory as presented in Prince and Smolensky (1993). Part of this approach is representing different levels of constituency in the line. The lowest level is the ‘metrical position’. The sequence of metrical positions is then structured

In: Brill's Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics