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Susan J. Neil

& ELwooD, 1983 for a description of P. bernhardus contests). The hermit crab is a useful subject in studies of assessment and agonistic behaviour because the shell, the resource under contention, is easily manipulated and its value can be estimated. Moreover, since the shell is carried by the crab it can

A.W. H. van Bekkem and M.J. Bierhof

When a batch of young of the mouthbreeding cichlid Haplochromis burtoni is divided into two groups of equal size, they show different behaviour. The ones that are caught first are less aggressive than the second, more shy ones. If agonistic behaviour has a positive selection value, it can be an important factor for the rapid speciation in cichlid fishes. In order to investigate this assumption experimentally, one has to bear in mind that early experience, group size and group density can influence the agonistic behaviour.

Vaclav Perner and Ludek Bartos

these two points in the antler cycle are regulated by hormones modulated by agonistic behaviour related to rank. References APPLEBY, M. C. (1982). The consequences and causes of high social rank in red deer stags. - Behaviour 80, p. 259-273. - - (1983). Competition in a red deer stag social group

Stuart A. Altmann

, according to the data in Sample I: P(X2 - 15-90) <.0005. In contrast to the results for adults, there was no significant indication in Sample I that the agonistic behavior of juvenile females was more likely than that of juvenile males to include ignoring the social partner: P(x2 = .50) > .15. The pooled

Christine M. Robertson

) and performed agonistic behaviours (Raised Opercula and ?1'ail Beat). While the males were Away from the partition (usually under their nests), the females usually attempted to follow them, making swimming movements with the snout pressed against the partition, or else remained quietly Near the

Daniel W. Leger, William A. Mason and D. Munkenbeck Fragaszy

substantially higher than those between animals who were not members of the same clique (see Table 1). In the two cliques having the highest levels of agonistic behavior, B-1, a male clique, expressed agonism chiefly in the form of genital displays, and P-4, a mother-daughter clique, expressed it in the context

J.B. Nelson

an inevitable concomitant of social nesting, itself adaptive in several possible ways. The behaviour we observed may conveniently be considered under the headings `agonistic behaviour' and 'pair interactions'. AGONISTIC BEHAVIOUR Despite the largely nocturnal habits of the swallow-tailed gull, it is

Peter F. Sale and C.M. Robertson

nest-oriented activities when presented with a female conspecific. i) Behaviour directed at the conspecific. The agonistic behaviour of B. splendens is described fully by SIMPSON (i968) ; the following behavioural units are relevant to this paper. a) Approach: the male orients its body towards the

Earl H. Meseth

, ( r ) the displays and display patterns used in the dance, (2) agonistic behavior as an aid in determining display origins, and (3) an analysis of dance function. 1) Present Address: Department of Biology, Elmhurst College, Elmhurst, Illinois, U.S.A. 2) This report is based on a thesis submitted in

Stephen J. Maxson and Lewis W. Oring

.5 x BMR; nest building = 3 x BMR; incubation = 1.3 x BMR. Agonistic behaviour consisted of balanced aggressive encounters (4 x BMR), chases (5 x BMR), upright displays (3.4 x BMR) (ORIANS, 1961; KING, 1974), appeasement (1.5 x BMR), and fighting (15.2 x BMR). Overall caloric estimates for agonistic