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Merle Tönnies and Anna Lienen

1 Introduction In the realm of black British literature, the most dominant novelistic form of the 1990s was probably the ‘black British Bildungsroman ’ (cf. Rupp 8) with its appropriation of a traditional western genre for very different purposes. The features and varieties of this phenomenon have

Multimodality in Canadian Black Feminist Writing

Orality and the Body in the Work of Harris, Philip, Allen, and Brand


Maria Caridad Casas

This book develops a theory of multimodality – the participation of a text in more than one mode – centred on the poetry/poetics of Lillian Allen, Claire Harris, Dionne Brand, and Marlene Nourbese Philip. How do these poets represent oral Caribbean English Creoles (CECs) in writing and negotiate the relationship between the high literary in Canadian letters and the social and historical meanings of CECs? How do the latter relate to the idea of “female and black”?
Through fluid use of code- and mode-switching, the movement of Brand and Philip between creole and standard English, and written orality and standard writing forms part of their meanings. Allen’s eye-spellings precisely indicate stereotypical creole sounds, yet use the phonological system of standard English. On stage, Allen projects a black female body in the world and as a speaking subject. She thereby shows that the implication of the written in the literary excludes her body’s language (as performance); and she embodies her poetry to realize a ‘language’ alternative to the colonizing literary. Harris’s creole writing helps her project a fragmented personality, a range of dialects enabling quite different personae to emerge within one body. Thus Harris, Brand, Philip, and Allen both project the identity “female and black” and explore this social position in relation to others.
Considering textual multimodality opens up a wide range of material connections. Although written, this poetry is also oral; if oral, then also embodied; if embodied, then also participating in discourses of race, gender, sexuality, and a host of other systems of social organization and individual identity. Finally, the semiotic body as a mode (i.e. as a resource for making meaning) allows written meanings to be made that cannot otherwise be expressed in writing. In every case, Allen, Philip, Harris, and Brand escape the constraints of dominant media, refiguring language via dialect and mode to represent a black feminist sensibility.

Natalie J. Walthrust Jones and Trevor G. Marshall

In this analysis of race relations in Barbados, the writers explore the theory of crypto-racism in independent Barbados, and argue that this form of discrimination and segregation has succeeded the ‘apartheid-like’ conditions which Gordon K. Lewis encountered when he researched the dynamics of Barbadian colonial society before 1966. The island became constitutionally independent of Great Britain on November 30th 1966. Lewis’ findings, published in his path-breaking study ‘The Growth of the Modern West Indies’ in 1968, indicated that Barbados was a mixture of anti-democratic and illiberal practices. Firstly, there was the deification of British culture which was racist as it enshrined such English heroes as the anti- Abolitionist, Admiral Horatio Nelson. Secondly, Lewis found openly segregated schools, places of adult entertainment, sports clubs, churches and commercial firms. However, the belief is that with 45 years of independence these odious segregationist ‘acts’ have disappeared and freed Barbados of anti-black racism. In this chapter the writers will adduce qualitative evidence to support their contention that what really exists in Barbadian society is ‘crypto racism,’ which is more insidious as it is camouflaged behind traditions of a commercial, agricultural and leisure time nature. At the same time, a novel dimension in the exploration of race relations in Barbados is introduced - investigation of Hindus and Muslims (East Indians) who have now resided in Barbados for over a century, and have established themselves as a disproportionately significant economic and social grouping. Theories of hegemonic and subaltern relations in this race-conscious and class-stratified island society are here explored. The works of Marx, Lewis and Beckles among others are mentioned, but the evidence from the society’s history which caused G. K. Lewis to severely criticise its arch-conservative ruling elite, is presented in stark and simple terms.

Black, J. L.

1940s or that were published during those years. The reason for this emphasis is that Black was more interested in that period than other decades. Chapters are thematic and appear to be defined in an...

Black, Robert W.

War. Black relies on military records, interviews with survivors, and his own personal experiences as a U.S. Army Ranger during the conflict to describe how these units rotated among various infantry...

Black, Jan Knippers

1964, leading to the U.S.-backed overthrow of the Goulart government. Black details the roles of the U.S. Information Service, the American Institute for Free Labor Development, U.S. corporations, the...

Black Protestants in a Catholic Land

The AME Church in the Dominican Republic 1899–1916

Christina Cecelia Davidson

In 1916, the African Methodist Episcopal ( AME ) Church—a historically black Church founded in 1816 in the United States—was one of several Protestant denominations growing rapidly in the Dominican Republic as thousands of laborers from the British Caribbean migrated to sugar plantations in


Camilla Erichsen Skalle

softness, fullness of lines and a vague sweetness of expression that furiously whips the blood with a sharp fascination, pungent, wild and intoxicating as the scents and aromas of the acacias’ resinous woods. 1 ∵ The description of the Somali girls introducing this chapter on Black Venus in the Italian

Yanyi K. Djamba

the populations consisting of 5 percent of native born blacks and 100 percent of African immigrants. The immigrant status is defined here on the basis of place of birth. Hence, African immigrants are all persons born in Africa but who were living in the United States at the time of the census; native

Sandra Bolzenius

World War, more than 140,000 women had enlisted in the Women’s Army Corps ( wac ), including 6,500 African Americans. 2 Like other soldiers, black Wacs laid claim to their full citizen rights as military personnel. As both black and female, this required additional battles against thickets of