In this chapter I illustrate the undeniable influence of modern dance on twenty-first-century high fashion. This is most obvious when the fashion industry appropriates movements and corporeal compositions from modern dance choreographies. These practices work to display visual and kinetic properties within fashion commodities that also are geared to maximising potential exposure. I do this by examining choreographic exchange between high fashion and modern dance. I investigate how shapes, forms, gestures and motion in fashion performance reference modern dance choreographies. In doing so, I demonstrate how movement vocabularies in modern dance feed into the socio-political economy of luxury fashion. This is most evident in the inter-relationships between moving bodies and mobility that is manifested in the materials used in garment design and construction. Methodologically, I compose photographic essays demonstrating a visual history of fashion’s relationships to dance, specifically Martha Graham’s Lamentation (1930). The essays map a choreographic trajectory in two luxury fashion editorials: Strike A Pose (Grazia 2009) and Feel The Power (Harper’s Bazaar 2010). I employ interdisciplinary visual and detailed movement analyses that draw on: textile and costume construction; image composition; and the role of technology to further illustrate how dance choreography influences the performance of fashion trade. I argue that Graham was a trailblazer – influencing high fashion – in her experimentations with stretched fabrics. Her pioneering technique carries a concept of tensile elasticity which is extended onto clothing. Through pushes and pulls, contractions and releases, Graham’s choreography influences current fashion performances displaying a restrained tension between fabrics and the body. What I provide is a metalanguage of modern dance choreography that can be used to describe trends in fashion which can then be mobilised by the industry to transform the mode of display in high fashion performance.
Ana Lúcia Abrahão, Dalvani Marques, Marcos Antônio Albuquerque de Senna, Sérgio Aboud, Marilda Andrade and Ândrea Cardoso de Souza
In Brazil, the Ministry of Health has been encouraging change in the way teaching and learning takes place in undergraduate health programmes. One such program is the Teaching Program at the Workplace in Health (PET-Saúde). At Universidade Federal Fluminense, in Niteroi/Rio de Janeiro, we have chosen multidisciplinary groups (a tutor – professor; two students from each of the following professions/teaching programmes: medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, pharmacy and physical education; and six professionals from different areas in health). The objective of this chapter is to describe the experience of multidisciplinary groups as we approached teaching in an interdisciplinary way. Methodologically, we have proposed, within the PET groups, a diagnosis of that given region, with the intention of developing devices to deal with the population’s health. This study began in 2009 and has been developed in the last four years. We have had professors of different faculties teaching and coaching students of other areas such as medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, pharmacy and physical education. Teaching took place in service, and not in the classroom. The professional who is in practice participates in the student’s preparation while acting, caring for health system users. Professors, students and professionals have thus been working in multidisciplinary groups for training and practicing in interdisciplinary health care. Our intention is that our students’, professors’ and health professionals’ preparation is enhanced simultaneously, while health assistance is improved as well. We have concluded that the process of teaching must be understood in a participatory way, focusing on the daily work of health services. That is why it is necessary to leave the protected environment of the classrooms and aim at the world of the workplace, where professional, individual and collective behaviours and actions are consolidated. Interdisciplinarity has become an important concept in pedagogical approach in the development of our health professionals.
Edie M. Lanphar
This chapter seeks to describe the notion of connectivity in an Australian tertiary setting through the methodology of ‘self as researcher’. This research is based on ‘reflexivity, action research and narrative analysis.’ As stated previously the site for this research was a classroom and the ensuing cognitive, social and emotional landscape of a group of early childhood education students who came together to work towards an understanding of numeracy and technology. However, it became clear that they had become institutionalized and simply replicators of information from textbooks and tutorials. In addition to their seemingly institutionalized responses there was a lack of connectivity to the early childhood department and the tertiary setting as a whole. Grappling with a sense of inadequacy and resignation to a marginalized position amongst other students in the department these students lived in a liminal space where they had no voice. To ameliorate a change from this outlook, the theoretical perspective of ‘threshold concepts’ as a possible tool for transformation and connectivity was implemented. As part of the emergent design process of ‘self as researcher’, an unexpected discussion developed about the use of technology and the KONY 2012 event. This discussion proved to be a catalyst for change and the threshold concept of liminality, which became a portal to a new recognition of their current space as paradigm paralysis and the need to crossover into a transformational schematic landscape. There was an element of responsiveness to these students; now sensitive to the ways they were engaging with learning. They were now able to connect and develop a community of empowered and engaged learners with a new paradigm for developing and maintaining their own personal as well as a professional identity that was transformative and enduring.
During the last two decades almost all the utopias of freedom, communication, access and cultural diversity have faced, respectively, problems of censorship, e-invigilation, exclusion and aesthetic homogenisation. The reflection on cyberculture in its first years was characterised by the development of methodology, fascination with the unknown, the lack of technical knowledge, access difficulties and a great enthusiasm. Therefore, we can distinguish some common attitudes, like the fear of dehumanisation and losing real contacts for the sake of virtual ones. Also, the 90s were the decade of great interest in telepresence and cyborg-like body prosthetics. One of the key features is adding the prefix ‘cyber-’ to many words and relating to fiction (mostly literature and cinema). Artistic activity may be traced halfway between fiction and science-based technology. Also, art struggles to be subversive, but there is no obvious system to be questioned. Is the cyberculture-based civil disobedience still possible? As network-based decentralisation has played a positive role, it also has a double meaning. There is no responsibility and no direct enemy that may be confronted and criticised. This problem may be considered as a central aporia of the digital avant-garde, to use the term coined by Hans Magnus Enzensberger. Since networks are no longer metaphors, as Eugene Thacker notices, they become real, but still unstable. Artists using networks are involved in many contexts, sometimes disappointed with utopias of freedom and visions of endless space. All this creates a complex picture of art within cyberculture, twenty years after its emergence, which I am going to examine in this chapter.
Sarah Philipson, Malin Holm and Suruchi Thapar Björkert
The aim of this chapter is to challenge Swedish exceptionalism, the nationally specific white identity that constructs Sweden as antiracist, gender equal and detached from a colonial past. We will analyse the discursive representations on ’Rummet, a separatist online-platform for ‘racialized’ antiracists and feminists, which received critical reactions in Swedish news media, when launched in 2014. Rummet enables discussions on racism in the everyday and exposes racist structures concealed within the processes of racialization in Sweden. To analyse the responses to Rummet, we engage theoretically with critical whiteness studies and postcolonial feminism and methodologically with critical discourse analysis. Our chapter draws on chronicles, editorial blogs, TV and radio programs, which together constitutes the media response to Rummet. We examine whiteness as a structural privilege through two interrelated processes: the first, ‘possession of rooms’ reinstates the normativity of whiteness by dispossessing non-white bodies. This orientation, arguably, is connected to a (post)colonial discourse, which facilitates the normative accessibility of white people to certain ‘rooms’, while disallowing others. Thus, the white room is constructed as neutral, while the nonwhite is seen as exclusionary and racist. The second process relates to the ‘privilege of interpretation’ whereby white bodies take precedence in interpreting reality, while the experiences of non-whites are marginalized and rendered invisible. The established media, we will argue, uses its discursive power to delegitimize experiences other than white, and inadvertently sustains Swedish exceptionalism. Through constructions such as ‘victim-cardigans’ and ‘buzz word’, white privilege reinforces its moral high ground and depoliticizes the issue of racism. Furthermore the white logic is positioned as the only valid ‘voice’, which deflects and dehumanizes ‘racialized’ experiences in the Swedish context. The presence of an alternative room such as Rummet agitates, provokes and creates friction with the status quo within which Swedish exceptionalism is embedded.
The main aim of this chapter is to research cultural trauma and collective memory in contemporary Lithuanian novel, reflecting collective representations and memories as discourses of social suffering and living / historical experiences. The hypothesis of the research: a construction of cultural trauma is grounded on the different representations of historical and present suffering of others which depend on changeable treatments of history, memory and identity. The aim defines the main problem of this research: where is the boundary between the real processes by which collectivity becomes traumatized and the creative processes by which the traumatized collectivity becomes a narrativised trauma? The methodological background – both theory of the cultural trauma of Jeffrey C. Alexander and Arthur G. Neal’s conception of collective memory – are the instruments which enable us to treat the mentioned topic and to formulate three strategies of representations. The action strategy: the confessional construction of the cultural trauma with a living framework, a rejected collective memory and an individual identity is the first strategy. The novels by M. Areima, A. Fomina etc. show the work as a fundamental action which represents a lost identity as a cultural trauma. The interaction strategy: the polemical construction of the cultural trauma with an intercultural framework, an alien collective memory and double identity is the second strategy. The novels by B. Jonuškaitė, V. Papievis etc. show a complex interaction between the different cultures and identities which revealed cultural identity as a cultural trauma. The reaction strategy: the reflexive construction of the cultural trauma with a historical framework, collective memory and collective identity is the third strategy. The novels by R. Gavelis, S. Parulskis etc. show a creative and critical reflection which allows to consider the Soviet society as a cultural trauma. Cultural trauma and collective memory are temporal and reflexive phenomena.
The emerging development-security nexus continues to influence both policy and scholarly debate regarding the effectiveness of foreign aid. At the same time, the heightened frequency of humanitarian intervention means that aid is increasingly being delivered during violent conflict, adding an additional layer of complexity to programme design and implementation. Although aid has a rich literature exploring its effectiveness, scholars do not yet fully understand its impact on conflict. Without such understanding, donors may slip away from the well-intentioned sprit of aid and risk, at best, wasting money, and at worst, prolonging war. This study examines how aid can influence violent conflict. Using a comparative case study methodology, the investigation considers the impact of aid on actors in a conflict and the factors affecting its development. The Ethiopian famine in 1984-6 occurred during a protracted civil war between the government and various separatist factions. A misguided commitment to neutrality and charity enabled aid to be used as a weapon of war. In contemporary Afghanistan, donors have moved in the opposite direction and attempted to connect aid to political development and foreign policy, even using the military to implement projects and explicitly linking development to counterinsurgency objectives. These cases conclude that aid is inherently political, especially in conflict, and the perception of recipients and other parties is more important than the intentions of donors. Aid bestows legitimacy, so donors must ensure that they empower those actors who do not perpetuate conflict. Ultimately, this necessitates a re-examination of the historic principle of neutrality in development work, lest aid fall short of its good intentions.
A pregnant body provides an additional dimension to the embodied experience and the body’s transformation in general. However, there is still a paucity of qualitative psychological research into women’s body experience in pregnancy and in the first year post-partum. In response to this, my PhD study aimed to explore women’s embodied experience of their pregnancy and of their postpartum year with the final task of identifying and describing this phenomenon as it is known through their everyday experience of it. The study was conducted in Lithuania and the UK, using semi-structured interviews and drawings. The data were analysed using the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Six women participated, all primigravidae, aged 26-35. Each woman was seen five times; three times during pregnancy and twice after her baby was born. A rich description of the women’s embodied experience emerged from the accounts, supporting the notion of bodily experience in pregnancy being dynamic, complex and firmly embedded in their life-world. In this presentation, I will present the transformation of embodied boundary experience through the eyes of one participant, Silva (pseudonym), adding the experience of other women than appropriate. For Silva her transformation of bodily boundary started with an attempt to clearly perceive and strengthen her external boundaries (interview at the first trimester), but she felt she had lost a clear perception of them (interview at the second trimester). Later Silva gradually experienced her own body boundaries as becoming vague, expanding, or even as disappearing, with external objects and strangers becoming part of her internal self-perception (third trimester and soon after the birth). Finally, a year after giving birth, Silva experienced the formation of new and more definite boundaries again. In this talk, these themes will be examined in light of other research, psychotherapeutic practice and phenomenological thinking.
Susana Rocha Teixeira
In my chapter, I claim that in the twenty-first century, makeover culture plays an important role in the American society. Here, young and healthy bodies are ideals and old or ill bodies are disturbing. In this makeover culture, the body has become a commodity, a source for physical capital, which enables individuals to acquire social or economic capital and to create or stabilise their personal identities. Therefore, bodies of Americans must be maintained/controlled via beautification (for example via cosmetic surgery or dieting). Works of fiction contain information about a particular society at a given point in time. For the United States of America (USA) this particularly holds true with regard to TV (-fiction), since the midtwentieth century. Thus, my chapter aims to show, using the example of Christian Troy (one of the main characters of the American TV-drama Nip/Tuck that was aired 2003-2010 on FX), how the series depicts and judges Christian’s body and its physicality of change, in order to shed a light on the American makeover culture in the twenty-first century in which the series was produced and broadcasted. My chapter will explore two diametrically opposed aspects of Christian’s bodily transformation: on the one hand, Christian owns/controls his body via beautification; on the other hand, he is owned/controlled by his body, which is constantly threatened by decay (e.g. by age) and thus disturbing. Methodologically, the focus will be on the visual and verbal aspects of Christian’s physicality of change, e.g. how the characters – including himself – talk about Christian’s body.
This chapter explores geographies of gentrification and resistance in relation to the monstrous through the lens of street-art in post-Olympic London. It takes as a geographic case study Hackney Wick, which has for a long time been a bastion of alternative and creative living due to cheap rents in large, ex-industrial warehouse spaces. The artistic sociality of the area is imbued within its landscape, as prolific street artists have adorned ex-industrial warehouses and canal-side walls with graffiti and murals. Since the announcement of the 2012 Olympic Games, the area has been a site of intense political and aesthetic contestation. The post-Olympic legacy means that the area has been earmarked for redevelopment, with current residents facing the possibility of joining thousands already displaced by the games. The anxiety of dispossession is reflected by monstrous characters and sinister disembodied teeth, eyes and fingers embedded within the landscape, painted by local artists. Using geographically sensitive mobile and visual methodology to document the landscape and artwork, the chapter analyses and interprets the monstrous themes using a range of theorists including Mikhail Bakhtin, Georges Bataille and Nick Land. I argue that monstrous street-art lays visible claim to public territory for aesthetic purposes at odds with the visions of redevelopers and the needs of capital. Whilst street-art and graffiti do not fit easily within frameworks of organized political resistance or collective social movements, they operate as a kind of epistemological transgression that triggers transformative affects in the viewer. This creates conditions for pedagogies of resistance to gentrification by expressing and mobilizing political affects such as anger and anxiety, raising awareness of geographical politics, and encouraging the viewer to question the status quo of the built environment.