religious rituals. This theory of ritual competence generates three predictions: 1) People with little or no knowledge of any given ritual system will have intuitions about the potential effectiveness of a ritual given minimal information about the structure of the ritual. 2) The representation of
Justin Barrett and E. Thomas Lawson
Alexis Garapin, Jeanne Duvallet, Stephane Robin and Daniel Llerena
theoretical predictions are proposed, derived not only from the strict assumptions 245 * Jeanne Duvallet is Assistant Professor at the Institut National Polytechnique of Grenoble. Her research interests include supply chain management, economic modeling, and simulation. ** Alexis Garapin is Assistant
few explicit predictions about the social dispersion of lek-breeding species (H6GLUND & ROBERTSON, 1990), but it has been suggested that the high success of hotshots can only arise where overlap- ping home ranges mean that many females can mate at a single site (BEEHLER & FOSTER, 1988). Lastly, while
Bracha Y. Schindler, Lior Blank, Shay Levy, Gyongyver Kadas, David Pearlmutter and Leon Blaustein
The integration of photovoltaic (PV) panels and green roofs has the potential to improve panel efficiency to produce electricity and enhance green roof species diversity and productivity. In this review, we provide an overview of research on the effects of green roofs on PV panel electricity production, and predict the expected effects of the PV panel on green roof plant communities. Previous studies suggest that PV panels are more efficient above a green roof than above several types of conventional roofs due to the cooling effect of green roofs on the temperature-sensitive PV cells. Some ecological studies on shade suggest that shade imposed by panels may enhance the biotic productivity of green roofs. Shade is often shown to be important for seedling survival, particularly in arid environments – so the effect of shade on plants may depend on climate and irrigation. Previous studies also suggest that shade variations over the roof area may enhance plant diversity, as such heterogeneity creates niches of light and moisture levels that are appropriate for a diversity of plants. These positive effects on plant diversity may lead to increased arthropod diversity as well. Additional replicated studies are needed to test the reciprocal effects of green roofs and PV, as past studies lacked replication. Future directions for research that could guide the design of green roof–PV integration include the effects of irrigation, plant diversity, and green area-to-panel ratio on the roof.
In 2014, China’s employment situation continued to improve; the employment structure was further adjusted; resident income grew faster; and the income distribution pattern started favoring workers. Household consumer prices were basically stable; the people’s living consumption showed relatively fast growth and further boosted economic growth. Continuous improvement was made in the social security system, and the level of social insurance and assistance was further increased. Public finance continued to favor the people’s livelihood and social development; non-governmental social participation continued to enhance. Meanwhile, economic and social development was subject to difficulties and challenges, various parties should make efforts to cope with them to forge ahead in the new orientation for continuous quality improvement in economic and social development.
Peilin Li and Yi Zhang
In 2013, China further advanced into the deep waters of reform. Overall, a series of policies for structural adjustment, growth stabilization, and development promotion yielded the following preliminary results. Economic growth rates stabilized; employment rates showed a positive trend in which aggregate demand slightly exceeded aggregate supply, and urbanization levels are expected to surpass 54%. Compulsory education further developed in a balanced way. University enrollment favored central and western regions. The transformation of government functions accelerated, and non-governmental organizations are expected to grow substantially in the future. More and more people were covered by social insurance. However, problems concerning development imbalance and unsustainability still exist. Statistical data relating to the first three quarters of 2013 indicated that the growth of income for urban and rural residents slowed down. Rising food and housing costs affected the consumption lifestyles of the ordinary people and delayed the naturalization of rural migrant workers. University graduates experienced difficulties in finding employment—structural unemployment will be problem that will continue into the foreseeable future. The problem in providing for the elderly will become more striking. Mass incidents caused by environmental deterioration rapidly increased. Violent terrorist incidents in some areas had an impact society’s sense of security as a whole society. Therefore, continuing to properly handling the intensity, progress, and direction of macro-control and making stable efforts in guaranteeing and improving the people’s livelihood will be of very great practical significance in 2014—the year of reform. Receiving adequate education and finding gainful employment are the two chief aspirations of every Chinese. It is necessary to take all these factors into considerations when pushing forward with relevant policies related to reforming the household registration system. With the implementation of the two-child policy, which allowed for couples to have two children if either the husband or the wife were only children, it is necessary to prevent a rebound in population numbers. It is imperative to soundly pushing forward rural land and housing system reform on the premise of protecting the interests of farmers. The most critical task lies in vigorously innovating the mode of social governance and promoting social harmony and stability.