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to be concluded between the United Nations and countries on whose territory peace-keeping operations are deployed. As such it is subject to modifications that may be agreed upon between the parties in each case. 2. The attached model, mutatis mutandis, will also serve as the basis for an agreement

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping

are engaged as combatants in a situation to which the law of international armed conflict applies. Where the members of U.N. forces or associated personnel become embroiled in an internal armed conflict, it is arguable that their involvement is not subject to the law of international armed conflict

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping

other objectives. It therefore includes references to other legal areas concerned with the legal status of such personnel. The Safety Convention, however, has received criticism and was the subject of a review for the purpose of strengthening and enhancing its protec- tive regime, and its development in

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping

With the General Assembly's adoption of the text of the Protocol to Pre- vent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons in November 2000, the international community achieved a degree of consensus on an issue that has been the subject of politically-charged and morally-loaded debate since it

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping

woman reported that she was subjected to 2,700 accounts of forced sex in one year, including group sex and sex at gun point. 25 Other women spoke of being bought and sold ‘like a rag’, being given food ‘like we were animals’ such as food that was left over on the plates of ‘customers’, and suffering

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping

. Treatment in practice One would expect that international actors are generally bound by similar obliga- tions as are state actors when exercising governmental functions in a territory placed under their administration However, the few efforts have been made to subject transitional administrations to

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping

number of legal issues which were the subject of consider- able debate. The Convention contains relatively few provisions on these issues, which respond to two different concerns. The first category includes certain obligations directly related to the origin of the exercise, i.e. obliga- tions of States

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping

operations, the Constitution was still not amended to regulate the par- ticipation of Italian troops in such operations. Italy, in spite of an increas- ing interest in participating in these kinds of operations has failed to ap- prove specific legislation to regulate this subject, unlike some other countries

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping

overseas and has held a number of courts martial in situ, for example in Croatia, as well as in Canada, for of- fences alleged to have been committed by Canadian Forces members par- ticipating in UN operations. Canadian Forces personnel are subject to arrest by local police, UN composite police units as

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping

, subject to exceptions in the SOFA and other relevant agreements. In addition, there are matters internal to the force to which receiving State law cannot properly be applied. Receiving State law will also frequently require adaptation to be capable of appli- cation to any military force. Moreover, the

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping