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the United Kingdom to show the existence of the concept in a number of common law Jurisdictions. Stewart also cites Section 244(3) of the German Criminal Procedure Code and Article 90 of the new Russian Penal Code in support of his view that judicial notice is not restricted to common law juris

In: International Criminal Law Review

racism and ethnic and religious prejudice, more speech rather than less speech is needed’. 12 Frederick Schauer, meanwhile, frames an argument in terms of a potentially dangerous ‘slippery slope’: denying protection of freedom of speech, even to Nazis, might, he tenders, ‘start us on a slippery

In: International Criminal Law Review

World War, practically every state which had fought Nazi Germany and Japan conducted war crimes trials, the number of which is in the thousands. 78 This immense effort brought about a number of cases in which the accused were convicted of criminal omission. This section examines whether LIABILITY FOR

In: International Criminal Law Review

children in armed conflict was most widespread towards the end of the Second World War (1939–1945). Russian, German and Jewish children participated in the fighting. 26 Polish children who resisted Nazi occupation are still commemorated as heroes. 27 It has been suggested that approximately 200

In: International Criminal Law Review

International Law and Politics (1979) pp. 239-280. See also the opening address for the United States by Justice Robert H. Jackson at the Nuremberg Trials: 'How a Government treats its own inhabitvnts generally is thought to be no concern of other Governments or of international society', Nazi Con.spiracy and

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

various conventions and treaties were laudable, but the signatories left the responsibility of punishing violators to the offending state, Germany. The brutality of German and Japanese aggression and the vast scale of the Nazi atrocities during World War II finally brought attention to the need for

In: International Criminal Law Review

.o’donoghue@durham.ac.uk Editorial Board Hirad Abtahi ( Th e Hague, Th e Netherlands ) Diane Marie Amann, Davis ( CA, USA ) Kai Ambos ( Göttingen, Germany ) Antonis Antoniadis ( Durham, UK ) Anabela Atanásio ( Th e Hague, Th e Netherlands ) Ilias Bantekas ( London, UK ) Roman Boed ( Th e Hague, Th e Netherlands ) Albin Eser

In: International Criminal Law Review

the Nazi foreign labour policy and its victims and were not mere aberrations brought on by fits of uncontrollable anger. The accused was sentenced to imprisonment for life. 114 In the Gerbsch Case, the accused was a guard of the camp of Zoeschen, in Germany, during 1944–1945. 115 The charge was that

In: International Criminal Law Review

when a French court issued a court order instructing Yahoo! , a California-based Internet service provider, to impede the accessibility in France to auction sites for World War II Nazi paraphernalia. 7 Although Yahoo! ultimately amended auction policy, it opposed the French court order by seeking a

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

Sciences, 1997), pp. 73–82. 3 See also: the Law of 23 June 1939, on special criminal liability in the event of escape to the enemy or beyond national borders, Dz.U. (1939) No. 57, item 366 and 367; the Decree of 31 August 1944, on the punishment of Nazi-fascist criminals guilty of the murder and ill

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice