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David Nichols, Avia Huisman, Mireya Rivera, Howard Hock and Lori Bukowski

horizontally or vertically, though never in both directions at the same time. The motion quartet varies with respect to the relative length of the vertical and horizontal motion paths, which is characterized by its aspect ratio (the vertical divided by the horizontal path length). Small aspect ratios favor the

Roland Thomaschke, Joachim Hoffmann, Carola Haering and Andrea Kiesel

disambiguate a potential null effect in Exp. 1A we conducted an analogous control Exp. 1B. The only difference to Exp. 1A was that responses were mapped to one of the stimulus features (e.g., horizontal → left, vertical → right) instead of a combination of both features. This entailed that potential TBE for

Jessica Chao, Patrick Cavanagh and Dina Wang

-water world is seen). 264 P. Cavanagh et al. This anecdotal evidence suggests that there may be something special about horizontal, reflecting surfaces. Long experience with reflecting water surfaces may have led to some ability to discount mirrored scenes appearing on the air–water boundary. Evidence

Shinsuke Shimojo

horizontal platform upon which the observer stands and stares at the center of the cylinder’s rotating base. The inner surfaces of the cylinder were striped in a spiral, whose spatial parameters were optimized for the effect. Note that the observer’s entire visual field is covered by this rotating spiral

Hyungjun Kim and Gregory Francis

approximately thirty seconds and then looking at a blank sheet of paper reveals an afterimage of shimmering wavy horizontal lines. The afterimage shape consists of lines that are locally orthogonal to the inducing stimulus contours. Thus, Ž xation of vertical lines leads to an afterimage of horizontal lines and

G. M. Hanada, J. Ahveninen, F. J. Calabro, A. Yengo-Kahn and L. M. Vaina

different sensory modalities. For example, when a subject attends to a certain visually presented object, responses to auditory stimuli that coincide with that attended object are increased in amplitude (Busse et al ., 2005; Donohue et al ., 2011). Whereas the effect of spatial cues is generally stronger

Santiago Legarre

in Argentina. To answer this question it will be useful to establish an often-overlooked, yet critical, distinction. A colleague and I have coined this distinction in terms of two dimensions of stare decisis: horizontal and vertical. 10 3. Dimensions of Stare Decisis Stare decisis is a legal

Rick Gurnsey, Pamela J. Bryden and G. Keith Humphrey

field). However, it would have to be a very particular set of horizontal operators that are involved in the production of the after- effect. Since at this point we do not have an elegant expression of the connections actually involved, we characterize-what are probably complex inhibitory links

M.W. Von Grünau, Panagopoulos and Galera

larger than the vertical extent. In the present situation with cueing with a narrow vertical or horizontal shape, the given asymmetry of the attentional window might interact with the oriented cues and affect the effect of cue validity. In order to have enough trials for each condition, we averaged over

Angelika Wosegien and Jürg Lamprecht

(Gasterosteus aculeatus). Head-up and head-down postures elicited fewer attacks than the normal horizontal posture. Good evidence for the appeasing effect of "appeasement behaviours" is apparently still rare, especially for animals which form long-term associations. In doves and pigeons aggressive interactions