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Tuuli Lähdesmäki and Tuija Saresma

In recent decades, Europe has faced the rise of nationalist populist movements objecting to increased immigration, cultural pluralisation, and interculturalism in European societies. Public discussion on interculturalism have often focused on the encounters of – and the wrangles with – migrants and local people and their diverse values. The members of anti-immigrant movements commonly object to cultural pluralism and intercultural practices and foster ‘traditional’, ‘Western’, and ‘national’ values. The discourse influenced by conservative ideologies also often embraces traces of xenophobia, homophobia, and misogyny. In this chapter, we ask how and why interculturalism is opposed in populist discourses. Focusing on identity formations we ask how the groups of ‘us’ and ‘others’ are produced, and analyse the rhetorical means used in demonizing others. Intersectionality as the critical recognition of hierarchically organized and constantly negotiated identity categories, such as gender, ethnicity, sexuality, social class, and religion, is our key methodological concept in analysing the complexity of the meaning-making processes in populist discourses. As our case, we analyse an article on Muslim homosexuals in Amsterdam, published in the widely read Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat (3 March 2013), and the vivid discussion that followed in the online discussion forum of the newspaper. The chapter demonstrates that notions of gender and sexuality are topics which can be flexibly utilized in populist discourses. On the one hand, the populist discourses are often profoundly heteronormative, fostering the idea of nuclear family, traditional gender roles, and hierarchical gender binarity. On the other hand, they may explicitly support gender equality and gay rights when the values promoted in the discourse are facing ‘a bigger threat’: immigration and Islam. In this case, the populist discourse can even aim to rhetorically normalize homosexuality and gender equality as an indication of developed Western rights and civilized values.

Barbra McKenzie, Phil Fitzsimmons, Andrew Matthes, Jason Hinze and Lorinda Bruce

This chapter unpacks the findings of a qualitative inquiry that aimed at further understanding the nature of the ‘Sense Making’ process on 50 pre-service teachers within the boundaries of an initial impact of teaching in a new ‘cultural space and place.’ These pre-service teachers undertook a teaching practicum in three separate third world countries, Cambodia, Nepal and India. Data were collected using a methodological ‘bricolage’ of observation, semi-structured interview, reflective journals and a pre and post reflective survey. Taking on the previously established theoretical position that this form of cultural work experience engenders an unfolding psycho-emotional reaction that commences with ‘cultural shock’, we sought to understand the ensuing facets of this process in which the destabilised understanding of personal identity enters a process of ‘enactment as sense making.’ ‘Enactment’ is seen as ‘the creation of an environment in which individuals seek to create a physical space to contain their actions, which also functions to constrain their actions.’ While not fully explored, our previous data suggested that the process of ‘enactment’ is bifurcated, and that prior to any external physical reorganisation of personal space, an internal narrative is created that acts as a socio- emotional spatial mediation between the need to return to past narratives of ‘place and space’ and the immediate perceived confusion of the present. From this current project, this internal narrative appears to coalesce around metaphoric markers of topography, which is characterised by ‘professional and personal’ identity transformation, in which ‘psycho-spatial’ resilience contracts and then expands as the new space becomes internalised and personally owned.

Lorraine Smith

In 2012 I completed some ethnographically styled research representing a snapshot of the multi-platform Internet use of four adolescents in the Southwest of England. Through these in-depth case studies I argued how young people are co-constructing unique multi-platform Internet spaces, combining online social networking and multiplayer computer games, to develop transformative arenas in which to journey through their rites of passage from childhood into adulthood. That thesis arose as a result of observing specific phenomenological behaviour in the way adolescents were interacting with Internet interfaces: not as discrete applications, tools, or resources, but as a way of co-creating and using shared space. In order to answer my original research question, ‘What’s in it for them?’ I argued for a critical rethink of how we conceptualise adolescent multi-platform Internet space: theorising my field-site as a place of play, ritual and learning and defining this co-created and inhabited space generically, not by temporal parameters but by the function it serves. More pertinent to this chapter is the hybrid methodology I adopted, the field data arising from it, and more specifically the significance of both for studying learner interactions with online virtual world (vw) and digital games. By repeatedly asking ‘What are you doing now?’ and ‘Why are you doing that? I was able to map how each individual interacted with their own multiplatform paradigm by flowing seamlessly between states of engagement, immersion and reflection. Using a grounded research approach allowed for the emergence of both a new theoretical paradigm, The Syntagmatic Cathedral, to describe heterotopic adolescent multi-platform Internet space; and a new term, flow-waves, to describe unique rhythms of individual’s activity (through states of engagement, immersion and reflection) within it. This chapter discusses these concepts and the implications of both for understanding experiential learning in virtual worlds.

Katerina Mojanchevska

The decades of transformation from government to governance have increasingly been about redistributing political power and citizens’ participation in decision-making processes, both on national and local levels. The rationale behind this institutional redesign is the benefit of direct participation of those affected in the decision-making process. In the more immediate relationship with the citizens and the more fragmented sources of power, cities are able to democratise the public space from below and include diverse publics (and not only those skilled and vocal in their claims) into deliberation over redistributive process of public goods. Various theories of policy-making seek to encapsulate the new relation between the citizen(s) and the institutions, such as: collaborative policy-making, communicative planning, the Just City approach, multicultural planning, to name but a few. While being quite distinctive and drawing inspiration from different disciplines, they share some common features, as: disappointment with technocratic planning and beliefs that the civil society and self-organised citizens’ groups are the key to social transformation and empowerment of groups outside (and sometimes against) the state. Yet, there are serious challenges in meeting these objectives. Cornwall and Coelho note that widening participation is more than ‘invitations to participate’ and ‘for people to be able to exercise their political agency, they need first to recognise themselves as citizens rather than as beneficiaries or clients.’ In advocating participatory approaches that operate beyond representational democracy and voicing the perspectives of different social groups in respective bodies and spaces, this chapter studies if and in which ways do self-organised citizens’ groups shift the power balance in urban and social making of cities and if the control over public planning process is real or symbolic. The research is based on qualitative methodology and is limited to the city of Skopje, Macedonia and its neighbourhoods.

Javier de la Rosa, Natalia Caldas, Nandita Dutta and Juan Luis Suárez

This study focuses on the question of beauty standards defined by scientific methodology in terms of face symmetry and averageness. This definition correlates with art history and the human faces depicted in a large set of artworks. Recent research in evolutionary psychology and neuro-aesthetics suggests that the attractiveness of a face can be conceptualized as the sum of a varied set of distinct features. These aspects are described in terms of averageness, symmetry, sexual dimorphism, pleasant expressions, and youthfulness. First we collected a dataset of more than 120,000 paintings and then applied industry standard face recognition algorithms to extract facial traits. Then we studied how portraits of faces could be considered more or less beautiful across time and lastly, we noted when beauty trends evolved. Our study focuses on 18th century painting styles such as Rococo and Neoclassicism, which adhere to strict conventions of symmetry and realistic depictions of the human anatomy. It extends until the Impressionist and the Avant-Garde eras that broke with these conventions. Our analysis reveals a particular decline in face averageness and symmetry that demonstrates a shift in artistic styles over time. It evolved from a naturalistic representation of the human face, which is to say, from bearing resemblance to the natural human anatomy to an abstract representation that deconstructed facial features, such as in Picasso’s paintings. A face averageness graph exhibits a sharp decline in averageness and symmetry from the 18th century onward indicating that beauty conventions and standards regarding the representation of the human face in art varies greatly. The early 20th century marks a complete break in facial representation in portraits. This analysis also reveals a change in beauty perception and conventions arising at the beginning of the 20th century that expressed a newfound preoccupation for discovering and depicting facial features.

Tambe Ojie

This chapter is intended to examine the main causal factors that propel election related violence in Africa following the controversial election results that were released in Kenya and the disputed electoral process in Tanzania during the presidential election that were held in 2005 and 2007 respectively. The recent elections that took place during the years 2005 in Tanzania, 2007 in Kenya and 2011 in Cameroon proved some diverse outcomes. Kenya and Tanzania ended up in a violent situation that even threatened to destabilise the countries and almost brought them to a collapse. On the other side of the continent, Cameroon seemed to have enjoyed a peaceful outcome, despite alleged irregularities and some malpractices during the electoral process with little or no post-election violence. This chapter will investigate the underlying causes of the electoral violence, and the divergent outcome. The reason for these comparative studies is to understand why election violence occurred in Kenya and Tanzania and not in Cameroon. The results proved that elections in Kenya, Tanzania and Cameroon are far from the norms of elections in advanced democracies. Analysis proved that the violence that occurred in Kenya was as a result of the perception that the incumbent stole the elections. In the case of Cameroon and Tanzania, the electoral process was ‘made’ by the government giving the incumbent an added advantage. The significant difference with Cameroon is that the electoral system in Cameroon gives way for smaller parties to be accepted in the parliament while those of Kenya and Tanzania prevents regional parties. The first part of this chapter is the methodology and theoretical framework; while the second part will be the empirical findings and analysis.

Beneath the Crust of Culture

Psychoanalytic Anthropology and the Cultural Unconscious in American Life

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Howard F. Stein

In this book, the author presents a pioneering interpretation of culture as constituting a dynamic relationship between the visible “crust” and the elusive “core” of social life. He meticulously maps the role of the unconscious in shaping much of American life in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. He crosses and transcends disciplinary boundaries in studies of September 11, 2001, the 1999 Columbine High School massacre, the execution of Timothy McVeigh, the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, the 1999 Worcester, Massachusetts fire, and the eruption of hypernationalism and xenophobia in nations and workplaces — all as cultural phenomena with a psychodynamic core. He shows how the experience of loss in the face of massive social change often leads to equally massive defence against the experience of mourning. Beneath the Crust of Culture will be of interest not only for behavioural and social science professionals, but also for a lay public interested in understandings of culture deeper than the surface of the news and of official pronouncements.

Narrating Indigenous Modernities

Transcultural Dimensions in Contemporary Māori Literature

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Michaela Moura-Koçoğlu

The Māori of New Zealand, a nation that quietly prides itself on its pioneering egalitarianism, have had to assert their indigenous rights against the demographic, institutional, and cultural dominance of Pākehā and other immigrant minorities – European, Asian, and Polynesian – in a postcolonial society characterized by neocolonial structures of barely acknowledged inequality. While Māori writing reverberates with this struggle, literary identity discourse goes beyond any fallacious dualism of white/brown, colonizer/colonized, or modern/traditional. In a rapidly altering context of globality, such essentialism fails to account for the diverse expressions of Māori identities negotiated across multiple categories of culture, ethnicity, class, and gender.
Narrating Indigenous Modernities recognizes the need to place Māori literature within a broader framework that explores the complex relationship between indigenous culture, globalization, and modernity. This study introduces a transcultural methodology for the analysis of contemporary Māori fiction, where articulations of indigeneity acknowledge cross-cultural blending and the transgression of cultural boundaries.
Thus, Narrating Indigenous Modernities charts the proposition that Māori writing has acquired a fresh, transcultural quality, giving voice to both new and recuperated forms of indigeneity, tribal community, and Māoritanga (Maoridom) that generate modern indigeneities which defy any essentialist homogenization of cultural difference. Māori literature becomes, at the same time, both witness to globalized processes of radical modernity and medium for the negotiation and articulation of such structural transformations in Māoritanga.

Nick Webber

The concept of ‘griefing’ is in wide circulation among both online video game consumers and producers, and in existing academic research on online video games. Scholars from a number of disciplinary backgrounds have sought to examine grief play and grief players, focusing, for example, on the definitions of these terms, grief player objectives, and the consequences of griefing. Notably, attempts to regulate griefing are a significant presence within the work to date: griefing (however defined) is usually portrayed as something which must be prevented or ameliorated, and in some cases connected directly to ideas of cheating and bullying. Researchers tend to agree that grief behaviour is classifiable as ‘transgressive’ or ‘deviant’ in nature. This chapter therefore seeks to interrogate these positions, employing some methodologies from cultural theory to examine the practices of griefers. Some of these practices absorb huge amounts of the griefers’ time and effort, are supported by extensive activity outside game environments, and are the product of effective organisational structures and hierarchies. With that in mind, they are perhaps worthy of re-evaluation. Furthermore, the large numbers of players who involve themselves in these activities should give us cause to think carefully about what we mean when we classify griefing as deviance: in what ways are these practices transgressive, and do they now constitute part of the mainstream of online game consumption?

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Judith Tucker

The thrust of this paper is to investigate how painting and ‘landscape’ might interrelate, how one can be the interface for the other, and what possibilities there are in the space that is created at this interface. The paper takes as its point of departure two encounters. One is with ‘landscape’ paintings, those of David Bomberg, and one with a piece of writing about ‘landscape’ painting, Griselda Pollock on Lydia Bauman. These serve as the foundation for a discussion, exploration, theorization and positioning of Tucker’s own painting practice. Her recent work is about location and dislocation. It evokes travel, distance and being in place, and reflects the shift between direct experience and memory. The paintings become concretized evidence of fluid events, reflecting both the land and those processes involved in the making. The form of this essay has evolved out of a methodology parallel to Tucker’s practice of painting: the issues have developed out of the painting/objects and the painting/processes, thus demonstrating how a very particular relationship with and understanding of ‘landscape’ might be imbricated in the creative process itself. This argument encompasses concerns that are both spatial and temporal: a consideration of Marianne Hirsch’s notion of postmemory is pivotal. What emerges through the dialogue between these theoretical concerns and the materiality of both paint and landscape are the fertile possibilities inherent within the site of painting for both viewer and maker.