This article analyses the international relations of Mexican sub-state governments. It aims to answer four questions: 1) What explains the recent and dramatic increase in their international activities?; 2) Do these federal units have an independent foreign policy?; 3) What are their levels or degrees of sub-state diplomacy?; and 4) Which variables explain the variation in their degree of sub-state diplomacy? The first section argues that the growth in international activities is generated by the combination of two sets of variables: a) the growing interdependence and globalization of the international system; and b) the democratization, decentralization and structural reform processes in the domestic arena. The second section sustains that Mexican sub-national units do not have a foreign policy of their own. The third section shows that there is a wide variation in the states’ degree of international participation. In order to characterize this variation, a typology is constructed and the 32 Mexican federal units are classified in two moments in time (2004 and 2009) and a comparative analysis between these two periods is presented. The fourth section argues that the degree of sub-state diplomacy depends on three variables: economic (gross state product); political (juxtaposed government); and geographic (border location). Each of these variables is tested to determine its impact, providing evidence to sustain the relevance of the economic variable, arguing that juxtaposed government functions as a trigger variable for initiating or increasing external activities, and that the border is a necessary, but not sufficient, variable to explain the degree of international projection.
the cooperation of EU member states in the ﬁeld of consular aﬀairs. In countries where an EU citizen’s state is not present, the citizen enjoys the protection of those EU states that are represented. The implementation of this rule is left to a ‘lead state’. A second area of consular cooperation is
prominent initiatives in this regard to engage Israeli citizens and diasporas in public diplomacy, namely the ‘Presenting Israel 2010’ and ‘Faces of Israel 2011’ projects.
Finding Millions of Partners
Given the aforementioned ‘built-in disadvantages’, the new Israeli Ministry of Public Diplomacy and
presenting the personal and practical ambassador’s-eye view. For example, Young discusses the typical structure of the embassy; Presidential/Ambassadorial relations, Consular affairs, Bruce’s relationship with the various levels of the British elite — including, but not necessarily limited to the leading
treatment of associated foreign policy implications.
In the subsequent two chapters, Petrič concentrates on presenting considerations for the actual conduct of foreign policy in the environment described in the previous section. Chapter 3 explores methodologies for developing foreign policy objectives and
civil protection issues at the European level, included consular aspects; 2 the Austrian Presidency also presented an updated paper on the Presidency report on reinforcing the European Union’s emergency and crisis response capacities; 3 and High Representative for the CFSP Javier Solana and the European
, research, development, specific vocabulary and contribution to society. For example, DuPont has a channel on YouTube to show audio-visual materials about the company’s developments and contributions to the world. 58 In these videos, top executives present DuPont’s official position about different themes
, diplomacy is exercised within an ‘ethic of ultimate ends’. This means that its driving force is the successful implementation of policy, targeting specific ends that are presented as morally unobjectionable and justifying the means employed to achieve them. On the other hand, diplomatic practitioners also
to resolutions; presenting statements; participating in debates by presenting explanations of votes or positions on resolutions; and coordinating voting positions. The empirical data in this article derives from official documents (principally the reports of the Human Rights Council and the General
of letters, travaux préparatoires , ministerial instructions, newspaper articles and notes of those present during the 1961 negotiations. Loyal to the intent of the book — to provide ‘complete commentary on the political aspects of the codification process of diplomatic law’ — Bruns swiftly combines