assumes that “ordinary Romans lived well […] as a result of extensive markets” 24 and this allows him to suggest that the average standard of living in the Roman world was close to that of the 17th century Netherlands. 25 In this sense, Temin—like Josiah Ober who claimed that ancient Greece was
Meritefnut should continue in life ( Ꜥnḫ ḥm.t-nṯr Mry.t-Tfnw.t ), followed immediately by a reference to Shepenwepet II as “living” ( Ꜥnḫ.tἰ ). If Meritefnut were the missing prenomen of Amenirdis II, then a co-tenure between her and Shepenwepet II appears unavoidable. Such an arrangement must not be
exhibits figural and textual offerings on many subjects (religious, historical), in many media (carving, ink), and on a variety of canvasses (rock cliffs, temple walls).
Inscriptional content reveals that rock inscription carving was motivated by many different primary goals: they could serve as
vessels of choice and “workhorses” of ancient Egypt.
So dominant was maritime life in the Egyptian worldview that the earth was imagined as floating on a universe of inert and dark primordial waters, known as nw or nwn . 15 It should not be surprising, then, that watercraft were an essential part of
individuals can be simultaneously linked to both state and patronage logics (for example, an individual who gains control over a territory as the result of his being part of a state elite, but who then exercises patronage prerogatives over the population living in that territory). Evidence of these kinds of
to pre- pare them in such a way that they are quali ﬁ ed for jobs elsewhere in academia. These students and the discipline itself su ﬀ er a loss if they must leave academia altogether in order to sustain aliving, and thus can no longer contribute to the ﬁ eld. The need for help- ing students ﬁ nd