specific environment with flora, fauna, minerals, and human life represented, reinforce the documentary sense that the expedition leaders effectively reached a land different from any land in the ancient Egyptian imagination and expectation. However, notwithstanding the amount of details represented
Meritefnut should continue in life ( Ꜥnḫ ḥm.t-nṯr Mry.t-Tfnw.t ), followed immediately by a reference to Shepenwepet II as “living” ( Ꜥnḫ.tἰ ). If Meritefnut were the missing prenomen of Amenirdis II, then a co-tenure between her and Shepenwepet II appears unavoidable. Such an arrangement must not be
vessels of choice and “workhorses” of ancient Egypt.
So dominant was maritime life in the Egyptian worldview that the earth was imagined as floating on a universe of inert and dark primordial waters, known as nw or nwn . 15 It should not be surprising, then, that watercraft were an essential part of
point linking ancient Egypt with modern Europe. The economist Peter Temin assumes that “ordinary Romans lived well […] as a result of extensive markets” 24 and this allows him to suggest that the average standard of living in the Roman world was close to that of the 17th century Netherlands. 25 In
to pre- pare them in such a way that they are quali ﬁ ed for jobs elsewhere in academia. These students and the discipline itself su ﬀ er a loss if they must leave academia altogether in order to sustain aliving, and thus can no longer contribute to the ﬁ eld. The need for help- ing students ﬁ nd
source document, Kannaday posits that scribes performed a systematic reworking of the transmissional lines.
However, Kannaday claims there was no such systematic work. Even if there is some credence to the claim concerning apologetically motivated scribal alterations, it was in no way systematic
exhibits figural and textual offerings on many subjects (religious, historical), in many media (carving, ink), and on a variety of canvasses (rock cliffs, temple walls).
Inscriptional content reveals that rock inscription carving was motivated by many different primary goals: they could serve as
made a burnt offering and swore by ʾlh, who is living, that he shall lead bravely’ Variant: lh . [llāh] [allāh] KRS 1551: h lh rwḥ w mḥltn l-ḏ yʿwr h-sfr ‘O Lh, send the winds but may he who would efface this writing experience a dearth of pasture’ Note: GrAr: Αβδαλλας (PAES III .a 46); Nab
(to AD 300) has long been recognized as ‘wild,’ ‘uncontrolled,’ ‘unedited.’ ” 23
The wild development supposedly ended with a textual standardization motivated by ecclesiastical powers. As Parker explains, “the growth of influence of a number of key sees, particularly Antioch, Alexandria
individuals can be simultaneously linked to both state and patronage logics (for example, an individual who gains control over a territory as the result of his being part of a state elite, but who then exercises patronage prerogatives over the population living in that territory). Evidence of these kinds of