religion. Therefore, in a Mesopotamian context, witchcraft refers not to magical behavior as such, but to inimical behavior, that is, to the practice of magic for antisocial and destructive purposes (though, as we shall note later, not all behavior so labeled was, in fact, motivated by evil intentions
Barrett , L. F. How Emotions are Made: The Secret Life of the Brain . Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt ( 2017 ).
Barsalou , L. ‘ Frames, Concepts, and Conceptual Fields .’ In Frames, Fields, and Contrasts: New Essays in Semantic and Lexical Organization , ed. A. Lehrer and E. F
approach that designates ancient patterns of behavior and belief according to modern categories and views zikurrudâ purely in pathological terms fails to take account of the fact that some diseases are a function of cultural beliefs that motivate behavior, behavior that may seem bizarre to us but
, as the formula often reads, “life and light”, 2 that acts directly in beneficial ways from a distance on all beings in the universe. It enlivens all of nature and brings it to fruition. Yet solar light is the physical manifestation of its principle, divine light, which first created the world; and
up within the mother and coming out slithering like a snake. 7 Scorpions were the symbol for motherhood and were related to fertility and the image of the married woman through the goddess Išḫara. 8 By extension, the scorpion and snake illustrate domestic life and combine the concepts of life