surviving ancient literary sources, most of which were written by, or for, the elite, is that any person who made aliving by building, manufacturing, or sales was somehow debased (Aristoteles, Politika : 1337b; Cicero, de Officiis : 150–151; Platon, Politeia : 6.495d–e; Ploutarkhos, Perikles : 1
contextual information – a museum piece which may be an early forgery of a Minoan artefact – whose significance lies in its complex modern history and the identities created during its life in the museum. Using contextual, multi-scalar, and revisionist approaches, this addresses increasingly topical issues
straightforward ‘invention’ (Okereke 1982), but with very potent social implications (Sherratt 2007). As a psychoactive substance, alcohol is considered fundamental to human social behaviour, being an important element in the construction of religious experience, gender categories and the rituals of social life
How did people live in the Middle Ages? What factors shaped and determined their lives and how did they cope with life in their urban environment? These are questions that attract the interest of both the researcher and his readership in a very special way. It should be emphasized here that much
, a style that he believed derived from Tanis Tanis under the influence of Asiatic populations living in the Delta. 6 He supported Golenischeff’s dating of the sphinxes; however, he ascribed the Nilotic dyads to Ramses II Ramses II and Cairo CG 395 Cairo CG 395 to the Hyksos (pls. XXXIX, XL ). J
specific, living individual – thus offering more room for interpretation and acceptance of differing artistic conventions. 14 Further complicating this issue is the idea that a portrait is created primarily for aesthetic reasons, while a representation serves additional functional or ideological purposes
urban lifestyle. Still, he gives a vivid impression of the rich and heterogeneous social life in medieval Vienna that corresponds in many aspects with other contemporary sources. 15
Importantly, if Enea Silvio Piccolomini makes use of some distinctive categories of social affiliation—burghers and
interrupted the saint at prayers, presenting himself in royal dress and claiming to be Christ. 2
Temptation of St. Martin, Panteón de los Reyes, San Isidoro, León.
photo: james d’emilio
The scene constitutes just a minor element of an elaborate painted program that centers on the life of
landowners, amongst whom the Roman senators were well represented. 17
Whether they were living at Constantinople or Rome, Italian senators were perfectly aware that their role as a political body was coming to an end in reconquered Italy. The group which fled to Constantinople especially had the more
and living off the land was understood as a type of degradation, a transition from being a free man to a state of slavery. As a consequence, it had to lead to a loss of identity.
The nomadic way of life was important for yet another reason, one that was realized by more perceptive leaders of the