–1161) reads religious texts in people’s homes in exchange for barley flour. 6 Centuries later, the great meditator Lama Zhapkar (Zhabs dkar tshogs drug rang grol, 1781–1851) lived a similarly impoverished life, his autobiography telling of an early life shaped by begging for food, often living on little
My child, you are born of the heart.
May you live a hundred years and perceive one hundred teachings.
May you attain a noble long life and overcome every evil.
May you have wealth, good fortune and happiness in abundance!
From the Four Tantras , root text of Tibetan medicine
these creatures appeared in Daoist writings, with a moral implication. In his Master Who Embraces Simplicity (fourth century), Ge Hong portrays them as a latent shadow of death in the living body; they regularly report on the misdeeds of the host to the heavenly ruler, who reduces the life span of the
sustainable development” testifies the commitment of the parties to take into account the change in the interpretation of the phenomena that took place throughout the life of the treaty, and to make it their own. 104 The term “natural resources” is, according to the Appellate Body, a couple of generic terms
, seem to dominate accounts of healing in medieval Japanese literature. 44 Shinmura has identified in the famous Tale of Genji ( Genji monogatari 源氏物語) a large array of supra-empirical beings who may cause illness: demons ( oni 鬼), evil spirits ( akuryō 惡靈), spirits of living persons ( ikiryō
construed to prevent a Party from adopting or maintaining measures, including environmental measures: (i) necessary to secure compliance with laws and regulations that are not inconsistent with this Agreement; (ii) necessary to protect human, animal, or plant life or health; or (iii) related to the
agreed to participate in the project at a distance, living and working in the private homes of scholar-officials. 8 Through their erudition and dedication, Wan Sitong and a nephew, Wan Yan (1637–1705), soon became the de facto heads of the Ming history project. They held those key positions for thirteen
head of a group of entertainers, but a leader of “migrants” or even the head of a band of “rebels.” In 1708 Qing officials came across a member of the Ming royal family, Zhu Cihuan, whom Ming loyalists had once claimed to be the third Ming heir apparent, Zhu San Taizi. Although Zhu was living
of the small groups in Northern China. In his path-breaking work van de Ven (1991) concludes that the CCP would have come to life irrespective of Soviet involvement. The atmosphere did encourage radical intellectuals to look for alternatives such as those provided by a Bolshevik party. However, as
power over specific policy domains. Jahiel (1998) notes that, since the 1990s, international environmental conferences and funding for environmental protection efforts have motivated bureaucracies to “[scramble] for a piece of the environmental pie” (p. 786). Bureaucracies such as the mep , the