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Yaakov Elman and Mahnaz Moazami

times. What this would have meant to a Jew living under Ptolemaic rule can be gauged from Michael Satlow’s colorful description of the Ptolemaic drive for taxes: While the Ptolemies were largely content to stay out of local politics, they were hands on when it came to money. Judea alone was

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G. Anthony Keddie

Jesus]…. 8 Thus, on the one hand, Jewish apocalypticism was a religious expression of hope in reaction to the imposition and implementation of foreign rule rather than a form of social resistance against it. On the other hand, early Christian apocalypticism was the product of two “living, acting men

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Abraham J. Berkovitz

sufficiently deal with the jealousy of Sarah later on. He reads Sarah’s jealousy as “motivated by Abraham’s happiness, which jeopardizes the divine promise…”, 204. Regardless, a word other than jealousy could have been used to convey this. 36 The omission of Abraham’s instructions to Sarah to tell others

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G. Anthony Keddie

with a distant political force was mediated through their daily activities of going about their lives. Conversely, these lives were not lived in a vacuum, and as the socio-political context changed, so their technologies of living necessarily could not remain static. 13 While justly endeavoring to

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G. Anthony Keddie

previous chapters, Q responds to the shifting structures of inequality as Roman law and culture made an impact on daily life in Palestine. By most accounts, Q was written in Greek in the Galilee between the late 30s and mid 60s CE , 2 a period of dramatic geopolitical shifts in which Galilee’s βασιλεία

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G. Anthony Keddie

contracts for tenancy, loans, inheritances, and sales. With the Parthian threat at bay, Herod turned his attention fully to cultivating his kingdom’s infrastructure and economy, enabling elites to expand their resources. In Herod’s sickly final year of life, a couple of sages named Judas son of Hezekiah

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G. Anthony Keddie

birth to many children. (1:1–3) Immediately following this idealization of a prosperous life, sinful Judaean exploiters are introduced as those who have obviated the narrator’s prosperity. It is clear that they are Judaean because their sins, which defiled the sanctuary, are distinguished as worse

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Cana Werman

Palestine to join the Pharisees’ battle against the priests. But how would Hillel, living in Babylonia, have known of the political/religious struggles occurring in Palestine? The Tosefta does not pay any attention to this question. Rather it emphasizes that a character of high status emigrated all the way

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Brittany N. Melton

, Mordecai’s claim that help will come to secure the survival of the Jews (4:14a) creates a literary gap . The reader is forced to wonder about the thoughts motivating his claim: Why is Mordecai confident the Jews will survive? From where will their help come? The narrator “evades all explicit formulation

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Ida Fröhlich

might refer to both the Enochic and other Genesis traditions. The Yahwistic story of creation mentions that Yahweh “formed man from the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life ( nišmat ḥayyim ); and the man became a living being” (Gen 2:7). The human vital force is of