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Ayman Shihadeh

-cum-cosmological account and justification of evil, al-Rāzī argues that a theodicy must be strictly subject-centred and that ultimately it is a futile exercise. This refutation is motivated, not by theological contrarianism, as all too easily assumed on traditional readings of al-Rāzī’s commentary and thought, but first

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Siam Bhayro

Laws of Countries . Bardaiṣan lived from 154 to 222/3  CE . A pagan convert to Christianity, he was born in Edessa and raised in the court of Abgar the Great. Towards the end of his life, he left Edessa and travelled. We know he visited Armenia, about which he wrote a history, and that he may have

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Hidemi Takahashi

1. Introduction ‭The readers of the present journal will require no reminder about how in the early centuries of Islam the Syriac Christians living in Mesopotamia and the surrounding areas made a major contribution to the development of the sciences in Arabic through their translation

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Bert Jacobs

, more surprisingly, also been found in those specifically dealing with religion. 3 A case in point is the Ethicon , a guide for spiritual and moral life written for both monks and lay-people, which is modelled after the four-fold structure of Ghazālī’s Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn . Besides the structure, the

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Dimitri Gutas

precedence in their case could not develop into a state ideology that would act as a historically motivating factor. Whether under the Romans or the Sasanians before Islam, or under the Muslim Arabs after it, the Syriac speaking communities were politically dependent on the major empires, and hence their

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Miriam Lindgren and Ronny Vollandt

omissions. On a few occasions, even larger textual units consisting of one or even several verses are omitted. Scribal mistakes cannot always be ruled out in such cases. However, the vast majority of omissions prove after closer examination to be stylistically motivated as a means of ‘cleaning’ the language

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Kamran I. Karimullah

Reisman has discussed how in his protreptic “autobiography,” Ibn Riḍwān sought to model his way of living ( sīra ) on the life Galen presents to his readers in the autobiographical portions of his writings. 30 Rāzī’s “spiritual physick” is also a carefully crafted contribution to the protreptic physician

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Laura Suzanne Lieber

more diffuse, societally determined elements. These poems about death and dying tell us about life and the living. jpa funerary poems reveal, implicitly and explicitly, a great deal about how death was ritualized in Jewish late antiquity, and they complicate the much more extensive material

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Heidi M. Ravven

could no longer find a place, a domain of acceptability. Alternative ancient Greek philosophies had represented different worldviews, and such worldviews, in turn, underlay particular ways of life—which were ways of life that emerged naturally from them, each an expression in action and mode of living

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Aubrey L. Glazer

Without music, life would be an error. —Nietzsche 1 Music aspires to be a language without intention. But the demarcation line between itself and the language of intentions is not absolute; we are not confronted by two wholly separate realms. There is a dialectic at work. —Adorno 2