the one which profoundly affected most Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire, was Armeno-Turkish ( Hayatar T‘rk‘erēn ). 12 Moreover, this phenomenon of writing a language with different characters from the original is not confined to the Armenians. Karamanlidi, for example, which has parallels with
transmission in the eighteenth century and, subsequently Jews embraced photography and film at a time that visual mass media came to dominate cultural transmission in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
If Jewish producers have been inclined to construct Jewish life and Jewishness through the
for which they provided specific guidance and legislation. For the sake of simplicity, we will refer to them here simply as laborers. This group of people worked for aliving, in contrast to the “poor,” who primarily begged or enjoyed social charity. On the other hand, they did not own income
more attention to a couple of historical details which seem to indicate that the processes were more complicated than they might seem at first sight. Moreover, it will be shown that the cultural and educational ideals that characterized and motivated Judah Ibn Tibbon were those he brought with him from
borrowings beyond the notion of mere influence and might correlate the dynamics of cultural exchange with the degree of religiously motivated hostility. 8 Dur- ing my research on Sephardic Bibles and Passover Haggadot, I finally real- ized that these influences could acquire a great deal of meaning in the
-cum-cosmological account and justification of evil, al-Rāzī argues that a theodicy must be strictly subject-centred and that ultimately it is a futile exercise. This refutation is motivated, not by theological contrarianism, as all too easily assumed on traditional readings of al-Rāzī’s commentary and thought, but first
Christian might be led to perform Muslim rituals out of fear for his life, but that lust or greed ( aliqua cupiditas ) is more likely to motivatea Christian to adopt Jewish rites. Likewise, someone could commit sorcery without intending to commit heresy, but motivated by some other reason, such as hatred
Laws of Countries .
Bardaiṣan lived from 154 to 222/3 CE . A pagan convert to Christianity, he was born in Edessa and raised in the court of Abgar the Great. Towards the end of his life, he left Edessa and travelled. We know he visited Armenia, about which he wrote a history, and that he may have
The readers of the present journal will require no reminder about how in the early centuries of Islam the Syriac Christians living in Mesopotamia and the surrounding areas made a major contribution to the development of the sciences in Arabic through their translation
, more surprisingly, also been found in those specifically dealing with religion. 3 A case in point is the Ethicon , a guide for spiritual and moral life written for both monks and lay-people, which is modelled after the four-fold structure of Ghazālī’s Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn . Besides the structure, the