is suggested by an important change that the Jubilean author makes to the biblical injunction against consuming blood. According to Lev 7:27, 17:10, and 14, one who consumes blood will suffer the punishment of כָּרֵת: “Since the life of every living body is its blood, I have told the Israelites
victim. The function of the angels of fire is to make life so painful and restless for Ali that he, and presumably his household, will not be able to sleep until he leaves. That such spells were not unheard of is shown by another fragment, TS K1.24, which contains a brief formula that was used in this
to which they belonged. A comment excerpted from an article he published in 2005 serves as a fitting segue to my topic: 3
Rabbinic sources codified the practices in customary use in this domain of life, so that the usages in evidence in our documents generated the rabbinic rulings
Hasmonean ruler Alexander Janneaus is often identified with 1QpHab xi 8–17, which associates excessive drinking with the priest’s downfall. 8 This is because Josephus describes Janneaus as dying from alcoholism: “His life in the field and the inebriety to which he had become addicted combined to bring on a
religion had become a private matter. In the nineteenth century, knowledge of Judaism’s intellectual and social history replaced the instinctive naturalness of Jewish life until then and made a new orientation to modernity possible. And there was probably no better way to achieve this modern identification
Guide of the Perplexed and mentioned Narboni’s Maʾamar bi-veḥirah and Ibn Caspi’s testament. 4 Jawitz also referred to Caspi’s nomadic life. 5 Jawitz sensed that Gersonides was the odd man out among the three and described him and his career as follows:
He was a great and
: “Since I was by then fatherless and without any means,” he writes, “I was forced to earn aliving by giving lessons to children. I was therefore unable to attend public schools and it was only in private [i.e. self-taught] that I could acquire the rudiments of a classical education.”
Before we examine Shabbetai ha-Kohen’s composition, a brief overview of his life, works, and intellectual interests is in order.
There is reason to believe that Shabbetai was born no later than the 1420s. 15 Judging by the dates of his works 16 and of extant manuscripts he owned, it is certain
of the earth, and to every bird of the skies,
(13) and to everything that moves on the earth, wherein there is aliving being,
(14) |I have given| all the green of plants for food.’ And it was so.
(15)  And God saw everything that he had created, and