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and literary authority with their femininity? Which difficulties did they face in the production, distribution and reception of their portraits? And how did these obstacles motivate some women writers, including Wolff, to adopt a cautious attitude towards the publication of their physical image or

In: Quaerendo
Author: B. Ann Tlusty

civic right for men. Given that the men questioned were all Protestant, however, the protest may have been confessionally motivated, providing them with a convenient opportunity to tease and provoke Catholic nuns. In response to the incident, the council issued a decree limiting bathing in canals to the

In: A Companion to Late Medieval and Early Modern Augsburg
Author: Margaret Lewis

into everyday working life. Swaddled and kept out of the way during infancy, children were given tasks within the household and sent on errands around town as they grew. Children were tightly knit into the guild structure as well, with boys training in a specific craft or trade, progressing from

In: A Companion to Late Medieval and Early Modern Augsburg

Like most pre-modern urban societies, Augsburg was highly stratified. While some inhabitants were wealthy and a few were fabulously rich, most were living in humble circumstances. The first part of this chapter surveys the evidence for the city’s social stratification from Augsburg’s outstanding

In: A Companion to Late Medieval and Early Modern Augsburg

for the sinful life of the community or as a trial “because the Lord disciplines the one He loves, and He chastens everyone He accepts as His son” (Heb. 12:6). Early modern Augsburgers thus viewed their own destiny as part of a larger historical process. Religious events contributed to Augsburg

In: A Companion to Late Medieval and Early Modern Augsburg

, because clerics were not citizens and paid no taxes – a source of irritation for many residents. Lay Christians participated as worshippers and contributed to religious life as custodians, members of confraternities, and generous donors who endowed masses, artwork, altars, and chapels. 3 One of the most

In: A Companion to Late Medieval and Early Modern Augsburg

On the evening of 22 October 1368, hundreds of artisans in the city of Augsburg took up arms against their government. Frustrated at a lack of representation in the city’s political institutions, the craftsmen occupied Augsburg’s city hall and demanded a greater voice in civic governance. They also

In: A Companion to Late Medieval and Early Modern Augsburg
Author: Lotte Hellinga

of books and documents that this entailed is in itself a gain. It too demonstrates how scarce the documents are that provide direct information about Gutenberg’s life and work once the 42-line Bible was completed. See Figure 5.2 and colour-plate for the opening page of a copy of the Catholicon that

In: Incunabula in Transit
Author: Lotte Hellinga

of books and documents that this entailed is in itself a gain. It too demonstrates how scarce the documents are that provide direct information about Gutenberg’s life and work once the 42-line Bible was completed. See Figure 5.2 and colour-plate for the opening page of a copy of the Catholicon that

In: Incunabula in Transit

conflicts, in terms of the various political or religious creeds that motivate violent rebellions or sublimate social conflicts into different systems of belief, should maintain a central position in our analysis. As Gramsci has pointed out, ideologies have considerable importance in shaping the ground upon

In: Authority and Control in the Countryside: From Antiquity to Islam in the Mediterranean and Near East (6th-10th Century)