importance in everyday life.
Looking at large river corridors like the Maeander valley one is inclined to attach much importance to the smaller inland rivers as traffic connections, too. A closer examination reveals that this is only partly correct in pre-modern circumstances.
Islamicate? Islamicate elements are not an outgrowth of Islamic religion and law, yet are integral to Muslim life. Such an element need not be by nature Islamic:
The specifically Islamic quality of a cultural element might well … owe nothing to its origin, but simply express the fact that Islam, by
to survive, but Androcles was eventually captured by Roman troops and restored to his owner (now back in Rome), who had him condemned to death for having run away. Only in the Circus did Androcles discover that the lion too had been captured and brought to Rome—a discovery that meant his life was
, rereadings of anthropological accounts, reexamination of archives and other seemingly familiar sources, and new research have now established an empirical base sufficient to support a serviceably contextualized, hence humanly motivated rather than model-driven, history of slaving on a globally inclusive
captives, even more powerfully than wampum or the calumet, signified the opposite of warfare, the giving rather than the taking of life. As living witnesses to the power and ferocity of their captors, captives also offered a subtle warning of the dangers one could face as the captor’s enemy. In many cases
learned a great deal from their exposure to the sophisticated ambience of the civilizations of the East. It was after the Crusades that rich Europeans, both noble and bourgeois, embraced a more elaborate style of life, with better clothes, a more varied diet, increased consumption, and richer houses. The
the spaces that this mobility created, and the contacts that it promoted, were viewed as potentially disruptive elements of urban life, requiring close observation.
Jost Amman, “View of the Piazza San Marco, Venice, with a procession led by the doge,” mid-16th century, showing one of
1998 Magnússon also published two anthologies of selected egodocuments, diaries, autobiographies, and verse miscellanies. The first contains the writings of the two brothers, while the second presents selected pieces of life-writing by a popular poet and scribe who also lived in the West Fjords region
to third centuries corresponded to the situation of the late Roman period as well. The case of a person of free status who was captured, sold, and returned to the empire as a slave was not common in sixth-century political reality. The act of redemption motivated by charity returned the captive to
a great deal of this literature was motivated by openly political considerations, the resulting attempts to read the existence of early “schools” into the sources were in some cases so tenuous as to undermine the credibility of the entire enterprise and provoke opponents into arguing that there was