wealth of nations (London 1904 ) 111. 31 Urban disamenities are defined as the worse living conditions in pre-twentieth century urban compared to rural areas. Urban areas had worse environmental quality, a shorter life expectancy and higher infant mortality rates (for an overview of studies of
point of view, rescuers’ ability to help was limited. Despite poverty and disease, and despite appalling living conditions, urban areas were a rational choice for many displaced civilians. Cities were places where large numbers of refugees congregated, which in turn legitimised – and explains – the
-Christian sentiment to build a new life in America rang true with the lore of their own families and the process by which they became American. Yet if Stavros had set out just a few decades later, during the 1920s, or had run afoul of the law in any way, his experience might have been quite different – less a story
labour market. The French socialists set up a labour exchange office to provide these German refugees with an official permit to work in France and helped them to find a job to ensure that they had ways of making aliving.
The Social Democrats were part of the political regime and they lobbied
exploitation and internal strife were motivated by the very idea of access to unlimited mountain pastures. Such a pursuit for a better life led Khampa from peasant background to migrate and attempt making a successful shift from a familiar sedentary life to an entirely new mobile life as herders in one of the
Introduction: Emigration in the Hungarian Press in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century
As the year 1887 was coming to a close, the Brazilian state council received a letter from the Hungarian railway worker Károly Botond living in Miskolc, an important mining and industrial town
often encouraged members to assist strangers who were only linked to the community by circumstances that forced them to migrate. She gave an example of how the virtual community once rallied around to purchase an air ticket for a White Zimbabwean living in South Africa who had been left stranded after
’ food policy during the Second World War ‘was not to maintain a high level of living standards or peacetime standards, but to establish the Existenzminimum
below which living standards should not be permitted to fall. This was to avoid at all costs another Turnip Winter.’
If the ghost of
cooperative scholarly transnational relationships emerged. I will specifically discuss the Columbia-Barnard scholars’ research on (a) European immigrants and exiles, (b) Mexican migration to and life-ways in the us , and (c) African American (more precisely: ‘African- us ’) and African-Caribbean cultures
ways in which refugees are represented, and the structures of international refugee regimes, the parallels that are made are motivated by the similarly vast scales of the displacement and persistent questions regarding who is entitled to international protection.
During the Second World War a