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1904 [1776]) 111. 31 Urban disamenities are defined as the worse living conditions in pre-twentieth century urban compared to rural areas. Urban areas had worse environmental quality, a shorter life expectancy and higher infant mortality rates (for an overview of studies of England, see for

In: Journal of Migration History

February 1908, the Ottoman State appointed Fevaid Bey, the son of the former governor of Mount Lebanon, Muzaffer Pasa, as ambassador to Brazil and opened a consulate in São Paulo as well. There were already at least 60,000 Ottoman citizens living in Brazil, and the number was rapidly increasing. 21 Only a

In: Journal of Migration History
Author: Davide Rodogno

of communications, seaports or railways. From a logistical point of view, rescuers’ ability to help was limited. Despite poverty and disease, and despite appalling living conditions, urban areas were a rational choice for many displaced civilians. Cities were places where large numbers of refugees

In: Journal of Migration History

-Christian sentiment to build a new life in America rang true with the lore of their own families and the process by which they became American. Yet if Stavros had set out just a few decades later, during the 1920s, or had run afoul of the law in any way, his experience might have been quite different – less a story

In: Journal of Migration History
Author: Melanie Burkett

Introduction Today, the early European migrants who founded settler colonial Australia are most often remembered as ‘pioneers’ possessing a ‘fundamental optimism’ that drove them to emigrate ‘in the hope of a better life’. 1 This celebration of migration contrasts sharply with current media

In: Journal of Migration History
Author: Silke Muylaert

Christian answers to God rather than to man”. His earlier writings which encouraged obedience placed many Reformed Christians and Huguenots in an awkward position when they faced repression from public authorities from the mid-sixteenth century onwards. 62 In the final years of his life Calvin justified a

In: Shaping the Stranger Churches

Swiss migration regime. 2 The Making of the Central Aliens Register and the Emergence of a Data-Driven Labour Market and Admissions Policy in Switzerland, 1960s-1970s In the spring of 1974, the first automated electronic database for foreign nationals living and working in Switzerland was

In: Journal of Migration History

Economic Planning. In 1972 he was made a senator for life. 50 Donato Menichella was the iri ’s general director and governor of the Bank of Italy. In 1946, following the instructions of Luigi Einaudi, Menichella assumed the role of General Manager of the Bank of Italy. In 1947 (with the

In: Journal of Migration History
Author: Brittany Lehman

1 Introduction In 1962, the North Rhine-Westphalian Ministry of the Interior ordered a group of 22 Moroccan men living in Bielefeld to leave the country. To facilitate this process, their employer ( Landscheidt ) and the Moroccan Embassy provided the men with a bus, with which they could

In: Journal of Migration History

France and helped them to find a job to ensure that they had ways of making a living. 42 The Social Democrats were part of the political regime and they lobbied within the political system for privileges for the Social-Democratic refugees. This insider tactic, together with some, albeit limited

In: Journal of Migration History