civilians and civilian property, yet states long understood this as a general injunction, not as precise guidance. And while the Geneva Conventions of 1949 had codified some rules (the creation of protected zones, for instance) for certain types of civilians (those enduring occupation or living in enemy
It is a truism to say that change is a fundamental characteristic of human life. Any living law has to cope with the relationship between the law as it stands and developing and new conditions. The problem for Roman law in the Middle Ages dramatically illustrated the tensions between permanence
predecessor Thomas Arnold with the idea of the unity of history and heralded it as ‘the truth which ought to be the centre and life of all our historic studies’.
As a concession to the ‘imperfect world’ in which he found himself at Oxford, to be sure, he defined ‘modern’ history for practical purposes
nation is living an independent life or has to submit to conquest, etc.
p . vinogradoff , Outlines of Historical Jurisprudence (1920)
Across epochs and peoples, legal thinkers have just as easily made recourse to principle at the earliest apprehension of a novel situation. In legal thought
specifically, even considering the large amount of his additional legislation that sought to protect families from disherison. However, ecclesiastical wealth and power was ever increasing,
and cumulatively the evidence makes a cogent case to the effect that Justinian’s stance was motivated by the
were further distinctions to be made, centering on the sensitive subject of when life began. The Carolina defined abortion as the killing of a “living fetus,” and as a capital crime, while the killing of a fetus that is not living was still punishable, but with lesser sanctions. There was some
Indians while the Spaniards would lose their expectations of alife of ease granted as just reward for the efforts they had expended during the Conquest and in pursuing the enterprise of humanizing the defeated peoples. 3 The Legal Grounds or Titles of Colonial Dominion Although the legal grounds that
Thomism as his intellectual springboard, Vitoria attempted to soften some Aristotelian arguments on slavery, although he, just like Aquinas, considered the Aristotelian system and its idea of man as a social being to be of uncontested soundness. 6 Vitoria argued that issues of secular life, like those
infrastructure and architecture, but also, and above all, of the expansion of a language, a culture, and an institutional way of life. After the arrival of Columbus to American lands, European practices of colonization were transformed and rendered the American event unique since, although colonizers still took
5.1 Patterns of Crime in Leiden and Gouda
In both Amsterdam and Rotterdam, the ports determined the economic activity and the social fabric of everyday life. Yet whereas the industrial sectors in the maritime communities were varied, Gouda and Leiden were characterised by a