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equal agents on a public scene that had its own rules of emulation, competition, recognition, and conflict resolution. This is also how he is recorded by the enthusiastic portraitist of that scene—from academic and polite sociability and literary life, through manners and morals, to hygiene and crime

In: Maximilian Hell (1720–92) and the Ends of Jesuit Science in Enlightenment Europe

the Society, namely the ones in Bohemian Prague, in Styrian Graz, and at the academic collegium in Vienna, in case I had not—encouraged by a hope that our Society will one day be brought back to life—resisted it with all my might. For you see, there are enemies of the Society and of the hard sciences

In: Maximilian Hell (1720–92) and the Ends of Jesuit Science in Enlightenment Europe

as confined to astronomical observation, turned into a more comprehensive scientific endeavor of virtually encyclopedic scope, with astronomy forming only a part of the research program. 1 A Journey Finished and Yet Unfinished Hell’s idea of expanding the scientific ambitions of an astronomy-motivated

In: Maximilian Hell (1720–92) and the Ends of Jesuit Science in Enlightenment Europe

were further distinctions to be made, centering on the sensitive subject of when life began. The Carolina defined abortion as the killing of aliving fetus,” and as a capital crime, while the killing of a fetus that is not living was still punishable, but with lesser sanctions. There was some

In: The Body of Evidence

, as the formula often reads, “life and light”, 2 that acts directly in beneficial ways from a distance on all beings in the universe. It enlivens all of nature and brings it to fruition. Yet solar light is the physical manifestation of its principle, divine light, which first created the world; and

In: Hellenistic Astronomy

civic right for men. Given that the men questioned were all Protestant, however, the protest may have been confessionally motivated, providing them with a convenient opportunity to tease and provoke Catholic nuns. In response to the incident, the council issued a decree limiting bathing in canals to the

In: A Companion to Late Medieval and Early Modern Augsburg

into everyday working life. Swaddled and kept out of the way during infancy, children were given tasks within the household and sent on errands around town as they grew. Children were tightly knit into the guild structure as well, with boys training in a specific craft or trade, progressing from

In: A Companion to Late Medieval and Early Modern Augsburg

Like most pre-modern urban societies, Augsburg was highly stratified. While some inhabitants were wealthy and a few were fabulously rich, most were living in humble circumstances. The first part of this chapter surveys the evidence for the city’s social stratification from Augsburg’s outstanding

In: A Companion to Late Medieval and Early Modern Augsburg

France, but it did not involve any pathophysiological aspects. The discussion focused on the diagnosis: on the one hand, it became part of the reflection on the medical definition of death, supported by the spread of a growing fear of uncertain states of life, and, on the other, it developed in the

In: The Body of Evidence

­zan­tine era. 124 It was written in a context of official encouragement to developing latifundia , after a long period of village growth and small peasant properties. A dedicatory proem, supposed to motivate the editorial undertaking, praises Constantine VII for “labouring in what is useful in life

In: A Companion to Byzantine Science