motivatesa series of core concepts for cognitive linguistics, presented in brief in this article. These concepts (and many more) are elaborated in greater detail in handbooks of cognitive linguistics ( Geeraerts and Cuyckens 2007, Dąbrowska and Divjak 2015 ) and textbooks ( Langacker 1987 and 1991a
to encompass not just ideational content but any experiential content, including affect and perception.
Talmy , 2000a, p. 4
Thus, cognitive-semantic research is understood to include studying thought per se . This naturally brings a general psychological component to this line of research
and/or processes needs to be considered when speaking of minds just in the same way as not much over and above biological processes needs to be taken into account when talking about life. In this sense, minds are ways of speaking of certain entities and processes just like life is a way of speaking of
Chadic, Frajzyngier 2012), like Pero and Mina, has not grammaticalized the noun corresponding to ‘head’ as a marker coding the point-of-view of the affected subject. As demonstrated in the present section, this fact supports the hypothesis that the grammaticalization of some functions can be motivated by
, linguistically motivated disambiguation e.g. anaphor resolution. (Bottom up) Free enrichment : The sentence She took out the key and opened the door would generally be interpreted in a way such that the key that was taken out was the key used to open the door. Usually, free enrichment corresponds to the
reference or refer to social location, as defined in Luraghi (2003a: 66), such as agorêi ‘at the assembly’, trapézēi ‘at (one’s) table’, makhêi ‘in battle’: these are nouns that denote places or event in which social life takes place in the Homeric poems. In all these cases, prepositional phrases are
could be regarded as distinct domains, e.g. ‘knowledge’, ‘seeing’, ‘finding’, ‘fear’, ‘confusion’ and ‘humour’. So what is common across languages behind these various expressions?
At this point we need to ask a slightly different kind of question: What kinds of surprise are there in everyday life
the experiencer to actively achieve an emotional state. Most frequently, the stimulus is construed as a reason that motivates the emotional state.
NomDat Construction with Human Stimuli
Emotion verbs that take the NomDat construction typically indicate negative
properties. On the one hand, it can indeed be held that the process of life itself can be equated with cognition—that is, the process or the property of living constitutes what can be reckoned to be cognitive ( Maturana and Varela 1980; Thompson 2010 ). On this view, the formal and organizational properties
; on demotion see further Solstad & Lyngfelt 2006). This is why the passive is often regarded as a pragmatically motivated voice operation (e.g. Givón 2001), as it imposes an alternative construal on the same verbal event, by profiling it from the perspective of the Patient (on construal and profile