to eternal life. Heraclius’ invocation of soldiers’ sacrifice in the name of God has almost no antecedents in late antique societies. 12 The liturgical ceremonies celebrated before a battle were designed to purify the soldiers’ souls for the violence they were about to commit, and to allow them
in South Asia: first, a continuation of the focus on the rational disciplines of the seminary in North India, on the maʿqūlāt within the pedagogy known as the Dars-e Niz̤āmī ; and, second, a modern interest in philosophy within learned culture—further motivated by the rise of the philosophy of
of worship, such as “God builds a home in Paradise for the one who builds a mosque for God on earth”, would have been a considerable motivating factor, the attempts to emphasise the prominence of Islam in an urban space and especially the capital of the Ottoman Empire, could best be achieved through
accord. This symbolic fragmentation of the body reflects the reality of the protagonist’s “deconstructed” lifeliving far from family and loved ones.
The protagonist, gazing into the mirror, is startled to see the face of an old woman with a vampire-like appearance and sharp canines advancing towards
dominant tropes both in describing the “darkness” of other countries, and in shaping the idea that New England women possessed a “privileged life” stemming from being Protestant.
Living under the bondage of patriarchy, the women of ‘heathen lands’ lacked education, freedom, and liberty. Urged on by
appears in the procedures and not in the passed sentences by the members of this body. The life of the communities and the minorities in the Ottoman Empire was governed by a set of laws and an entire legislation preserved their rights and properties. The different codes of kanunnâme devoted chapters to
blood while screaming, “ Allāh akbar .” They are contrasted with the characters who possess a pure and innocent faith which motivates them to do good, such as Yūsuf’s sister Ḥanna and Ǧawwād’s father, who dedicates his life to washing the deceased and in so doing sees this not as a degrading occupation
mission. Wahhabism defines the practice as shirk , awarding to creatures powers that are proper to God alone. Particularly condemnable is the recourse to holy persons once dead. It is not inconceivable that aliving person might help one obtain a goal, but the dead have no power. Indeed, they need the
, in the form of alms, masses, prayers and other Christian works. Such charity was not only a Christian duty, but was above all a penance. The result of this was the creation of a broad range of intercessionaries and supporters linking the worlds of the living and the dead, and the building of their
-1988), the good war articulates itself in the guise of ritual sacrifice, as Roxanne Varzi argues in a recent book. 6
At another level, the good war serves as a narrative technique. It tells the story of war by taking the broken bits of the truth that come out of armed conflicts and placing them in alife