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Sean Goggin

science” and to the “spiritual and material life of man”. In 1968, UNESCO conducted its inaugural general meeting on cultural rights, entitled ‘Cultural Rights as Human Rights’. The meeting was largely a gathering of culture experts and did not have the status of a general conference. However, it was an

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Xenia Avezov

examination of some of the common inhibitors or barriers for contribution provides a more complete picture of the variety of factors that constitute a tcc ’s decision-making process. Sometimes the barrier to participation is simply the absence of one or more of the key motivators described above. Lack of

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Kok-Chor Tan

the agent, such as giving up her own life for the sake of the greater good. These actions may be deemed saintly or heroic, but they are not morally required. For example, most moral philosophers will agree that there is no obligation for a solider, who is otherwise out of harm’s way, to throw

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EVA JOHANSSON and GERRY LARSSON

category encompasses a broad spectrum of views covering everything from living under primitive conditions to the fact that one is working within the framework of a military organization for a humanitarian objective. Furthermore risk and threat are a part of daily life, the situation is frequently diffuse

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Victor Peskin

international abolition of capital punishment stems from the belief that the protection of a "right to life" is a universal right and that the rendering of justice must respect this right.39 However, to the Rwandan gov- ernment, this standardization of punish- ment dilutes the meaning of justice by failing to

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Caron E. Gentry

peace is via a particular form of government and economic organisation, one that is more specifically Western and holds very Western norms about what public life is meant to look like. Therefore, the rationale behind the declinist literature rests within a Eurocentric framework. ‘End of history

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Daniel Jacob

RtoP in a way that focuses more directly on protecting civilians. The underlying rationale here is that the community of states has a direct responsibility to offer life-saving protection to civilians suffering from the four crimes. This understanding of RtoP can be conceived of as applying the natural

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Berthold Meyer

that were not explicitly defined as such but none the less necessary. As a result, even highly motivated staff with a sufficient knowl- edge of the language could not but work less efficiently. Also, for any staff member, a professional perspective that is restricted to a period of several months may

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Grant Marlier and Neta C. Crawford

. ‘Without the emotional engagement brought about by empathy, it is unclear what could motivate the extremely costly helping behaviour occasionally observed in social animals’. 13 Sending troops into a foreign conflict to protect another state’s people is typically a risky proposition, and cases where there

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Tamfuh Y.N. Wilson

begun to employ a theory entitled Joint Criminal Enterprise (JCE) to prosecute crimes of sexual violence. 17 This theory holds great promise because it views crimes of rape in a larger context – as part of a master plan motivating the mass violence that occurred between April and July of 1994. JCE