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Author: Daniel Druckman

following: enhanced self-esteem from group identity (Tajfel 1981); a need to accentuate differences through distinctions made between self and others (Turner 1987); the bias fosters ingroup cohesion or uniformity among members (Insko et al. 1988); the bias reduces uncertainty in social life (Hogg & Mullin

In: International Negotiation
Author: Aryo Makko

Durban in the Colony of Natal. By 1911, the colony had grown to 1600 people. Alsaker Kjerland reminds us that the activities of this group are a good example of the limited extent to which Western, and indeed Swedish-Norwegian, expansion was motivated by missionary work rather than economic and political

In: European Small States and the Role of Consuls in the Age of Empire
Author: Erika Svedberg

-world produced lonely individuals, who were either passively exploited or simply motivated in life by ferocious egoism. In many instances, people in both ideological camps believed the image reproduction to be important and true descriptions of the Other-place on the opposite pole. Although a discussion of the

In: International Negotiation
Authors: Huang and Evert Van de Vliert

so in a sequential rather than simultaneous fash- ion. By conducting two subsequent analyses, first at the individual level and then at the country level, they demonstrated that the cross-national variations in a particular psychological relationship, the link between self-esteem and life

In: International Negotiation

can appear and develop around various issues and values encompassing almost any dimension of our social life. For example, intractable conflict could be a power struggle between super powers that wish to determine world order (e.g., the Cold War); it could be religious struggle between different

In: International Negotiation
Author: Arvid Bell

the will to take a deliberate attitude toward the world and to lend it significance” (Weber 1949 : 81); and Ruggie stated that “constructivism is about human consciousness and its role in international life” (Ruggie 1998 : 856). According to constructivists, culture plays a significant role when it

In: International Negotiation

of games on specific learning outcomes, games will continue to be categorized as motivating and fun, but instructionally useless.” As a result, there is still little consensus on how to link specific learning objectives to the way simulation games are being designed. Given the complex character of most

In: International Negotiation
Author: Kai Schaefer

(March & Olsen 1998 ; March & Olsen 2009 ). However, these logics motivating state behavior should not be regarded as a strict dichotomy or mutually exclusive, but instead more as a single continuum representing opposite ends or poles. Strategic calculations are affected by what is considered

In: International Negotiation

differ in their attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and life experiences; 2) Such differences induce people to be egocentric, and often to have difficulty perceiving the perspec- tives of others; and 3) People are generally motivated to protect and promote their own self- interests. For this perspective

In: International Negotiation

Armenian massacres that took place in 1915, in which 1.2 million Armenians were killed by the Ottoman Empire, because of their religion and nationality. Lemkin was motivated to study law, which he did in Krakow and Lwow; he eventually earned a doctorate in law in 1926. Lemkin’s concern with destruction

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping