of their peers were from poor backgrounds so the pocket money made an impression. For these boys, military service was their only escape route from alife of poverty and were thus very motivated to complete their training regime of three or four years and endured the harsh disciplining regime. All
sociologist Justin Tseayo, himself a Tiv, these economic motives were important as “The notion of a ‘martial tribe’ is not sufficient explanation for the Tiv’s massive response to the military call.” 63 Expanded Tiv military service during the Second World War significantly impacted life in the Benue area. In
1 Introduction Unlike most British territories in Africa, Bechuanaland (today’s Botswana) did not have a permanent military during colonial times. Today, many people may incorrectly believe that since some Batswana served in British imperial forces during both world wars then Bechuanaland must have
understood that military slavery was the most honourable and profitable form of enforced servitude available to them, and that through this enforced service they secured alife of military honour with opportunities for power and enrichment.
During their conquest of Africa the colonial powers
shows that the communities survived by adapting to three types of life, namely, aquatic or water based civilisation, living in concentrated area – ‘linga’ and forest life or mountain/cave-based life.
Reports by travellers in the area show clearly the development of a water-based civilisation
the living conditions for chiefs and headmen in an effort to dissuade them from participating in the Mau Mau war. 2 However, this did not stop some affluent chiefs and headmen to support the Mau Mau. 3 This underscores that the position of traditional authorities vis-à-vis supporting or opposing the
because of that cycle we also decided to move. In contrast to his narrative as a younger man, decisions about where to locate his home, as a middle-aged man, were based around choices. He was motivated to move on as he wanted this phase in his life to be a time for developing new ways of living and re
(first secretary of the circle committee). For ten cells in the Sabão and Tongogara neighbourhoods where an estimate could be made for the number of plots (for living) they contain, the average is about 60 plots, where each plot is more or less square with a side of about 25 meters. In 2010 all of Sabão
Zimbabwe and Zambia under the control of his British South Africa Company. He also orchestrated a failed coup against the Transvaal in 1895. His personal life was equally fascinating, given that all indications are that he was homosexual, which raises interesting questions about gender and sexuality in the
of their organism, playthings of the raging waves of the environment; innocent, however, of the defectiveness of the former, which they do not choose when embarking on life’s journey, or the tempestuousness of the latter, which they do not motivate when trying to set a course without compass or