were three groups of four infant rhesus monkeys and eight rhesus mothers. There were two primary groups. The Mother Playpen Group consisted of four infant male monkeys that lived with their natural mothers from birth through the first i5 months of life except for a period of approximately one hour
, 2005). Sharing decisions, instead of accepting the decisions of a single leader, seems a more profitable strategy for gregarious individuals to both maintain group cohe- sion and the advantages of group life (Conradt & Ropert, 2007). Although individual(s) at the front position of moving groups are not
articulate their favored principles, extensions will always be needed for application to new situations. An unremarked irony of the traditional perspective is that it effectively seeks to put an end to ethical life, by offering a system of principles so complete that conduct could properly be governed by
together; they disliked being separated. The pleasure and pain systems were extended to respond to social stimuli.
What was so advantageous about the way early mammal-like reptiles made aliving that set the stage for this whole new way of having babies and extending care? The answer is energy sources
2 timetres long, excluding the tail (Figure i). Adult females when not preg- nant, weigh from 20 to 30 grams, and are about the same length as males. Pregnant females weigh as much as 50 grams. Most of the observations reported here were made on voles living either in a galvanised iron cage (i m. X
, individuals from low predation areas solved a maze faster and more accurately than individuals from the same stream but in an area with more predators (Brown & Braithwaite, 2005; Beri et al., 2014). In contrast, Burns & Rodd (2008) found that free-living guppies Poecilia reticulata from high predation sites
show agonistic interactions among each other and only a small outcome can be expected when studying their dominance-subordination relation- ships (ROWELL, 1974). Socially motivated species form groups in which the individuals stay together voluntarily for most of their life. The analysis of this
understand the precise pathways by which long-term fitness outcomes come about.
One common criticism of the assertion that social ties increase individual fitness is that such a causal relationship, if present, is actually reversed. Namely, better general health and vitality could motivate individuals to
One might wonder, in line with Dawkins (1990), whether depriving the dog of this opportunity to engage in species-typical behaviour might be an impingement on its quality of life. For a dog living alongside humans, however, the fitness implications of failing to adopt human
subsequent attack. This is in line with the predictions of the game-theoretical models, and it has been presented as an important argument to reject the possibility that displays are presently motivated by a tendency to attack and to flee. It should however be realized, that the game-theoretical models