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sparrows (Archawaranon & Wi- ley, 1988; Poiani et al., 2000) but not of free living white-throated sparrows (Archawaranon et al., 1991). There is also growing evidence from birds that individuals may enter a period when challenges do not affect testosterone (Wingfield & Hahn, 1994; Soma & Wingfield, 2001

In: Behaviour

, 2005). Sharing decisions, instead of accepting the decisions of a single leader, seems a more profitable strategy for gregarious individuals to both maintain group cohe- sion and the advantages of group life (Conradt & Ropert, 2007). Although individual(s) at the front position of moving groups are not

In: Behaviour
Author: Ernst W. Hansen

were three groups of four infant rhesus monkeys and eight rhesus mothers. There were two primary groups. The Mother Playpen Group consisted of four infant male monkeys that lived with their natural mothers from birth through the first i5 months of life except for a period of approximately one hour

In: Behaviour
Author: Philip Kitcher

articulate their favored principles, extensions will always be needed for application to new situations. An unremarked irony of the traditional perspective is that it effectively seeks to put an end to ethical life, by offering a system of principles so complete that conduct could properly be governed by

In: Behaviour

together; they disliked being separated. The pleasure and pain systems were extended to respond to social stimuli. What was so advantageous about the way early mammal-like reptiles made a living that set the stage for this whole new way of having babies and extending care? The answer is energy sources

In: Behaviour
Author: John R. Clarke

. 2 timetres long, excluding the tail (Figure i). Adult females when not preg- nant, weigh from 20 to 30 grams, and are about the same length as males. Pregnant females weigh as much as 50 grams. Most of the observations reported here were made on voles living either in a galvanised iron cage (i m. X

In: Behaviour
Authors: M.K. Mackay and N. Pillay

from low predation areas solved a maze faster and more accurately than individuals from the same stream but in an area with more predators (Brown & Braithwaite, 2005; Beri et al., 2014). In contrast, Burns & Rodd (2008) found that free-living guppies Poecilia reticulata from high predation sites made

In: Behaviour

). However, N. pulcher are highly social and cooperative, living in large colonies that are comprised of groups of 3–20 individuals with a single breeding pair and one or more non-breeding adult subordinates that assist in raising the offspring of the breeders (Taborsky & Limberger, 1981 ; Taborsky, 1984

In: Behaviour

show agonistic interactions among each other and only a small outcome can be expected when studying their dominance-subordination relation- ships (ROWELL, 1974). Socially motivated species form groups in which the individuals stay together voluntarily for most of their life. The analysis of this

In: Behaviour

pathways by which long-term fitness outcomes come about. One common criticism of the assertion that social ties increase individual fitness is that such a causal relationship, if present, is actually reversed. Namely, better general health and vitality could motivate individuals to be more social, and

In: Behaviour