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early Muslims who first developed the new Islamic sciences were by no means living in comfortable isolation in the Arabian Peninsula. Just thirty years after the Prophet’s death, the Muslims found themselves at the helm of a vast cosmopolitan empire that stretched from western Libya to the eastern

In: Ibn Taymiyya on Reason and Revelation
Author: Lars Hermanson

protection of the chieftains on account of the feuds, but at the same time the farmers also had some freedom of choice in that they could transfer their support to another chieftain, albeit with a calculated risk of life and limb. 23 Yet it was not so risky if their former lord’s power had been

In: Friendship, Love, and Brotherhood in Medieval Northern Europe, c. 1000-1200

harbor a “true” meaning that, unsurprisingly, coincides precisely with what has been derived through reason. Ibn Taymiyya sees this tendency exhibited in its most extreme form by the Muslim philosophers, who reduce revelation primarily to the status of an ethical motivator for the masses and essentially

In: Ibn Taymiyya on Reason and Revelation

have been rather unaffected by previous attempts to rehabilitate al-Ghazālī’s reputation. These had been motivated more by aspects of the ideological campaign of the Almohads to oust the Almoravids from power 4 than by a commitment to lend full official support to pro-Ghazālian Sufis. 5 As we will

In: Philosophical Theology in Islam
Author: Mikko Posti

seen, Aquinas began stressing in his later life that all events are necessary in comparison to divine providence. This shift in his thought simply did not leave as much space for arguments based on the accidental strategy. Judged from this perspective, Aquinas’s mature thought thus developed in a

In: Medieval Theories of Divine Providence 1250-1350