the power to liberate us from the tyranny of what was and is.
mohsin hamid , ‘On the Dangers of Nostalgia’, Guardian , 25 February 2017
Borrowing a term from archaeology, ‘the contemporary past’, this essay focuses on the ways in which fiction shapes perceptions of events within living memory
our way of life have been and remain hotly contested, especially in the United States, where climate change has become a matter of political ideology. In Europe, public concern over climate change has meanwhile been falling rather than rising (see European Commission 2017 ). It is widely accepted
in and between living organisms”. One literary critical method might proceed by describing “literature […], human experience, and the nonhuman environment as a nonhierarchical complex bound together by sign relations” ( Marin 2014 : 266). Accordingly, we must read novels, for example, not as
plutôt que sur la promotion de ses pairs [reach a vision of the world based on the wonder at forget-me-nots and the veneration of tiger beetles rather than on the glorification of his fellow men]” (2005: 95). He maintains that since he has lost his faith in humanism, he would rather spend his whole life
with the depiction of one’s own life is as old as literature itself and was already consciously used in the Middle Ages. 1 In France especially, the ‘autobiography in the form of a novel’ has remained a decisive trend in the literary world up until today, although certain dissenting voices who favour
city as a place ‘for aliving out of counter-normative, creative identities.’ 18 Maurice Blanchot, for example, thought of Berlin as ‘not only Berlin, but also the symbol of the division of the world, and even more: a ‘point in the universe’, the place where reflection on the both necessary and
to periphery or vice versa, usually as it takes place within a single genre, the novel.
In this essay, I want to complicate such unidirectional ideas by a close look at a major but never seen source for Virginia Woolf’s Orlando , the life – and the literary afterlife – of the real
care seems to have been an early impulse and motivation, which led Hughes from wildlife-watching to poetry-writing and became alife-long commitment. 17 The author himself has acknowledged the key role of the animal in his writings by turning it into a poetical metaphor. In his crucial essay Poetry
living being. Moreover, it is a narrative strategy that is very useful for encoding behaviour to be followed for the proper maintenance of the car.
The second reference is the relationship between car and urban life, consisting of the description of driving habits and driving rules. Both novels provide
appear to almost ‘spring to life’ – all of these recipients do not confuse real life with a representation (an artifice or fictio ). Nor do they, as a rule, confuse reality with an imagined world (a fictum ), 2 for they know that they are holding a book in their hands, that they are watching a film