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plants, animals and other living organisms should also not be patentable.” In 2000, the Africa Group lead by Mauritius presented a communication to the TRIPS Council arguing that “the co-modification and marketing of life structures violates the cultural principles of quite a number of societies” ( WTO

In: International Negotiation

can appear and develop around various issues and values encompassing almost any dimension of our social life. For example, intractable conflict could be a power struggle between super powers that wish to determine world order (e.g., the Cold War); it could be religious struggle between different

In: International Negotiation
Author: Arvid Bell

the will to take a deliberate attitude toward the world and to lend it significance” (Weber 1949 : 81); and Ruggie stated that “constructivism is about human consciousness and its role in international life” (Ruggie 1998 : 856). According to constructivists, culture plays a significant role when it

In: International Negotiation

of games on specific learning outcomes, games will continue to be categorized as motivating and fun, but instructionally useless.” As a result, there is still little consensus on how to link specific learning objectives to the way simulation games are being designed. Given the complex character of most

In: International Negotiation
Author: Kai Schaefer

(March & Olsen 1998 ; March & Olsen 2009 ). However, these logics motivating state behavior should not be regarded as a strict dichotomy or mutually exclusive, but instead more as a single continuum representing opposite ends or poles. Strategic calculations are affected by what is considered

In: International Negotiation

The focus of this thematic issue of International Negotiation begs the question: Why should we bother about justice, a moral-ethical concept, in the serious world of international diplomacy, the realm of state interests, power struggles and economic competition? Many international relations

In: International Negotiation

to its territory as a base is an enabling rather than a motivating factor for the proxy. Consequently, neither a peace agreement between patrons, nor between proxies, alone ensures peace. The patron can always find another proxy or the proxies may carry on the fight in spite of a peace agreement by the

In: International Negotiation
Author: Aryo Makko

Durban in the Colony of Natal. By 1911, the colony had grown to 1600 people. Alsaker Kjerland reminds us that the activities of this group are a good example of the limited extent to which Western, and indeed Swedish-Norwegian, expansion was motivated by missionary work rather than economic and political

In: European Small States and the Role of Consuls in the Age of Empire

beginning of this process, Parviz Mullojanov, a facilitator of the Inter-Tajik Dialogue, credits the Dialogue for inspiring him and others to establish new groups for diverse peacebuilding efforts. Th ese first groups demonstrated that private associations could effectively improve living conditions for the

In: International Negotiation
Author: Mikoto Usui

self-motivated partnership building with local community- development actors (particularly in developing countries). Level II : Change individual business environments: a lobbying in national and local government policy-making pro- cesses; b minilateral (sector-speciŽ c) alliances to develop voluntary

In: International Negotiation