. 16 In Ancient Near Eastern Texts Pritchard translates the term ʾuḫryt as “further [life]”, 17 also the Akkadian phrase ana aḫrat ūmē 18 (lit. ‘in the back of days’, cf. Engl. idiom. ‘at the end of the day’) has been invoked as a cognate of the OT expression.
Combining the material of
early Muslims who first developed the new Islamic sciences were by no means living in comfortable isolation in the Arabian Peninsula. Just thirty years after the Prophet’s death, the Muslims found themselves at the helm of a vast cosmopolitan empire that stretched from western Libya to the eastern
Students of Imāmī Shiʿism have long noticed the central place which taqiyya in its various forms occupies in the life and thought of Shiʿis. Some scholars have explained this phenomenon by referring to the position of the Shiʿis as a minority within the surrounding Sunni
Uṣūlī position, that the single most important source of law is the traditions of the Imams. These provide the community with an infallible guide to all aspects of life; they are also indispensable for a correct understanding of the Qurʾan and the Prophet’s utterances. Indeed, without the exegesis of
harbor a “true” meaning that, unsurprisingly, coincides precisely with what has been derived through reason. Ibn Taymiyya sees this tendency exhibited in its most extreme form by the Muslim philosophers, who reduce revelation primarily to the status of an ethical motivator for the masses and essentially
vindicated the call of a man, Muḥammad b. ʿAbdullāh. Motivated by a reason, driven by a cause or inspired by a divine call he—the prophet to be—spoke on behalf of the divine in high literary form. He was eventually recognized as messenger and his message accumulated the kind of reverence and authority