way of life was fundamentally questioned in the context of the reform instigated by Antiochus. For Judaism to relatable to the surrounding world and fit Hellenistic customs, certain changes were necessary. A distinguished openness to the outside was especially necessary for the worldwide acceptance of
wicked, for even if he is an Israelite and a wicked person your God abhors his sacrifice! And, furthermore, as for that which you adduce from other places [in scripture], answer me on the basis of the Torah!” Said to him R. Jose: “By your life, there is an explicit verse. For, thus you find that when the
asked him, and he would have given you living water” (4:10). The Roman soldiers are unable to grasp that Jesus is the true source of life and thirst-quenching drink.
When Jesus finally dies, his death is narrated with restraint. The evangelist presents Jesus’s death not as a moment of agony, but as
, reference is made to the unrighteous being blotted out of the Book of the Living ( 1 En. 108.3; 47.3). While the Psalm in its final form probably had nothing to do with the life of David or eschatology, this is probably how the Psalms were received by some parties. 52
Like the Psalmist, David is
audience, this mocking humour would have been well understood. But is it understood today? Christopher Frayling’s work suggests that a rhetoric of action, violence, theatrics, and noise (as seen in spaghetti western movies) is enjoyed as part of the rhythm of life, even though the audience may not be
some “belonging to the Peripatetic school” copy Moses in deploying wisdom as a lantern holder (cf. John 5:35) that, if followed, will result in peace for the philosopher’s entire life (Eusebius, Hist. eccl. 13.12.9–16; Aristobulus Frag. 5.9–10).
As with R. Ishmael in the revelations recorded in 3
adjective tsaddiq plays a decisive role in designating those who lead a properly religious life. Being righteous is not viewed as the gift of God. Rather the righteous are those who practice the commandments. This is not to say that God does not give any help to the righteous…. This help however, is not
meaning of חטא is “to miss [the mark]” and thus is etymologically analogous to ἁµαρτ- and also metaphorical when used in an ethical or religious sense. Quell in his TDNT article on the OT background of ἁµαρτάνω is confident that, for those who employed חטא , the metaphor was indeed aliving one: “The
eventually controlled or motivated by evil spiritual forces. That this is a concern is evident in Jesus injunction after finding his disciples asleep in the Garden of Gethsemane: “Be alert and pray lest you enter into temptation; the spirit is willing but the flesh is feeble.” 1 Although Jesus does not
army which was defeated by Shalmaneser III at Qarqar, 18 the 100,000 and 27,000 soldiers mentioned in 1 Kings 20 stand out as exaggerated. Moreover, after “the rest” died, 19 the story continues with Ben-hadad and his servants. The servants plead for the king’s life, and this results in a covenant