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Islam and Colonialism

Intellectual Responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British Colonial Rule

Series:

Muhammad Umar

This volume analyzes discourses on British colonialism constructed by Muslims of northern Nigeria c. 1903-1945. It departs from the conventional wisdom on British colonial policy of indirect rule and its “benign” consequences. Conceptualizing colonialism not simply as a unilateral imposition but as a dynamic encounter between colonizer and colonized, the book shifts the focus away from the overwhelming impact of the former and devastating consequences on the later, thereby revealing indeterminate outcomes and unintended consequences of both the actions of the colonizer and the reactions of the colonized. The volume analyzes legal treatises, poems, and novels, connecting authors to their intellectual backgrounds, relations to colonial regime and intended audiences, leading to better understanding of the ideas that informed Muslims’ intellectual and practical responses to colonialism.

Series:

British Intelligence on Yemen, c. 1940-1967
Reports and Handbooks from the Aden Archives

The Two Yemens, 1940-1967
Since the unification of the Yemen Arab Republic and the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen in 1990, the Republic of Yemen has occupied an important position in the geopolitical landscape of the Arabian Peninsula region and in the wider context of Middle Eastern and international relations. Extending from the Red Sea to the oil fields of south-eastern Arabia it has become both economically and strategically significant in international affairs.
Half a century ago, however, in the same region, “Two Yemens” co-existed uneasily side by side, separated by uncertain boundaries and widely different administrations and political aspirations. The British, settled in Aden since 1839, were determined to extend their influence into the outlying areas of the Aden hinterland. British rule was consolidated when Aden became a Colony in 1937 and it was further extended by the development of a specific Protectorate administration, with its Secretariat in Aden and with British Protectorate officials in local posts in the Western and Eastern Aden Protectorates. Anglo-Yemeni relations had been consolidated in the 1930s, after long and tortuous negotiations, with the conclusion of the Treaty of San’a in 1934. From the outbreak of the Second World War, however, the British became increasingly concerned by the influence in Yemen of other European powers, notably Italy.
Between 1940 and the British withdrawal from southern Arabia in 1967, British officials were concerned both to consolidate power and influence in their own sphere of administration and at the same time to gather information and maintain good relations with independent Yemen. The archives of the British Administrations in Aden are a unique source of information, not only on international involvement in the area but also on the internal political, social and commercial development of the entire region. The material in this collection consists of printed and typescript reports and handbooks, maps, memoranda and intelligence reports covering this important period in Yemeni history. The material complements the files in the companion set, British Intelligence on Yemen, c. 1880-1948, and takes the story up to the end of British colonial rule in Aden in 1967.
Handbooks, reports and intelligence summaries reproduced in this collection were almost all classified as “Secret”, “Top Secret”, “Confidential”, or “For Official Use Only”.

The British Administrations in Aden
Formal British relations with Yemen were established in 1839 with the construction of a coaling station at Aden, on the route to India. A British Political Residency, under the administration of the British Government in India, was opened at the same time. Aden became a British Colony in 1937 and in 1963 a High Commission took over the British administrative role in the newly-created South Arabian Federation. On independence in 1967 the British ceded power to the People’s Republic of South Yemen (later the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen).

The Aden Archives in the British Library
The India Office Records (IOR) form part of the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections at the British Library. Within the IOR the Aden Records (R/20) are the archives of the successive British administrations in Aden between 1839 and 1967. The papers were created, maintained and preserved in Aden and returned to London in the late 1960s after Independence. They consist of over 12,000 volumes and files as well as maps and printed material. They are now catalogued in seven groups under the references R/20/A-G. Material in this set is drawn from R/20/B (Records of the Secretariat, Government and Colony of Aden, 1937-1962), R/20/C (Files of the Aden Protectorate, 1928-1962), R/20/D (Files of the High Commission for Aden, 1962-1967) and R/20/G (Aden Library, c. 1860-1967).
The Aden Archives are unique within the India Office Records collections in that they cover a period extending well beyond the end of the British Empire in India. The material is detailed and extensive although much of it is very fragile. Because of this some files have not survived in their entirety and there are occasional gaps in the sequence of reports.

Organisation of the material
The material has been arranged in two groups for the present publication. The first group comprises printed and typescript reports and handbooks on wide-ranging subjects covering the period 1939-1967. Some of these were preserved for reference in the Aden Library (R/20/G) and some were kept on office files, either in the Aden Secretariat (R/20/B) or in local offices in the Protectorates, such as the Residency office at Mukalla (R/20/C). The second group comprises intelligence summaries collected from the entire region and forwarded to the Colonial Office and Cabinet in London. Copies were also preserved in Aden in several different and sometimes overlapping series.
• 1. Reports and handbooks, 1939-1967;
• 2. Intelligence Summaries, 1948-1967.

Contents of the Reports and Handbooks
The reports and handbooks offer a wide-ranging coverage of economic, political and social developments in southern Arabia, from the British attempts to gather information on the political situation in the north Yemen capital, San’a, in the 1940s to the development of the oil industry in the Aden Protectorates in the 1950s and the consequent diplomatic disputes over unresolved boundary issues. Many of the reports include maps and photographs.

Some highlights include:
• A medical survey of the Western Aden Protectorate, 1939-1940;
• Impressions of a visit to Yemen: report by W.H.Ingrams, August 1941, Most Secret;
• Political development in the Hadhramaut: printed paper by Harold Ingrams, April 1945;
• Brief Notes on the history of the tribes now residing in the Eastern Aden Protectorate, and their present area and divisions, 1955;
• General Handbook of the Aden Colony and Protectorate, Aden: Intelligence Branch, Headquarters, British Forces, January 1959;
• Report on the fisheries of the Eastern Aden Protectorate, 1960;
• Basic Paper on Boundary Problems in the Eastern Aden Protectorate, compiled by A.F.Watts, Mukalla, May 1962;
• An Economic Survey of the South Arabian Federation, 1962.

Contents of the Intelligence Summaries
The intelligence summaries are detailed and regular (usually monthly) accounts of activities in Aden and the two Aden Protectorates from the 1940s onwards, as well as Local Intelligence Committee and Aden High Commission reports from the 1960s. Their contents are arranged under sub-headings which include sections on local tribal and state developments (for example, the Qu’aiti State of Shihr and Mukalla) and sections on frontier areas, security forces and oil negotiations. In a wider political context they record the impact of international events (for example the 1956 Suez crisis) on local politics; and from the late 1950s onwards they examine and report in unique detail on the growing and increasingly radical independence movements, the National Liberation Front (NLF), the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) and on labour relations in Aden and the Aden Trades Union Congress as well as on their relations with, and support from, other states in the region and internationally.

Arrangement of the fiche and films
Within the two groups the following information is provided for each item:
• Section 1, fiche- and film-number; print title; date and place of publication; security classification; number of pages; and OIOC reference number;
• Section 2, fiche- and film-number, original file title and covering dates of intelligence summaries; OIOC reference number and number of folios.

Penelope Tuson, Former Curator of Middle East Archives, Oriental & India Office Collections, British Library

The Rise of Modern Turkey, c. 1906-1939

India Office Political and Secret Files and Confidential Print

Series:

The Rise of Modern Turkey, c 1906-1939
India Office Political and Secret Files and Confidential Print

On the death of Kemal Atatürk, in 1938, the British Ambassador to Turkey, Sir Percy Loraine, commented in his annual report to the Foreign Office on the "vast strides in moral, material and political progress" accomplished in "the brief span of fifteen years under the dynamic impulse of this remarkable man". Loraine's report is one of a series included in this collection of files and printed material from the India Office archives at the British Library.
The collection focuses on the international aspects of the decline of the Ottoman Empire from the beginning of the twentieth century to its formal end after the First World War. At the same time it traces the emergence of Turkey as a nation state from the Young Turk revolution in 1908 and 1909 through the proclamation of the Turkish Republic in 1923, followed by post-war modernisation and secularisation programmes and territorial consolidation up to the death of Atatürk and the outbreak of the Second World War.

International rivalry: British relations with the Ottoman Empire
British relations with the Ottoman Empire in the late-nineteenth century were the responsibility of both the Foreign Office and the India Office. The East India Company had regularly appointed agents at Constantinople from the late-eighteenth century onwards and the Government of India subsequently maintained a continuous political interest, particularly after the Ottoman expansion into the Arabian Peninsula in the 1870s. International rivalry in the Gulf in the period immediately before World War I focused on oil concessions in Ottoman territories and on the construction of the Baghdad railway and the international implications of German involvement in the project. After the cessation of hostilities in 1918 the India Office was closely involved in the lengthy peace settlement negotiations, the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire and the official diplomatic recognition of the modern Turkish state by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.

The rise of modern Turkey
After the First World War peace settlement British Indian interests were concentrated on the questions of the Caliphate and the abolition of the Sultanate as well as on the wider issues of boundary drawing in the former Ottoman territories. At the same time, however, the India Office monitored closely the events leading up to hostilities between Turkey and Greece in the early 1920s. Throughout both the 1920s and the 1930s they were kept informed of Turkey's foreign relations and internal political developments from Foreign Office reports which were regularly circulated to India Office officials.

Contents of the Collection
The India Office material on Turkey during the first part of the twentieth century is surprisingly comprehensive and ranges way beyond the specific interests of the British imperial administrations in India and the Gulf. As well as the files relating to Anglo-Ottoman rivalry in the Gulf region, the material includes printed confidential Foreign Office correspondence on the political situation in Constantinople and on events in other Ottoman territories in the 1900s. The First World War stimulated a series of secret and confidential intelligence reports and handbooks on all the Turkish provinces, including "Turkey in Europe" and "Turkey in Asia". Files from the 1920s and 1930s contain detailed information on the financial and economic situation, education, the distribution of population, foreign relations, military and naval affairs and aviation.

Provenance and archival background
The India Office Political and Secret Department (and Military Department) archives form part of the Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC) now within the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections at the British Library. The Political and Secret Department papers and printed material have now been catalogued under the OIOC reference L/PS. Military Department papers are located under the reference L/MIL.
From 1902 the most important of the Political and Secret Department’s correspondence and papers accumulated in London were registered, indexed and arranged in files according to subject. From 1902 to 1930 the “Subject Files” are located under the reference L/P&S/10. Around 1930/1931 the department replaced its subject file system with a new series of “Collections”, arranged according to geographical area. They are now to be found under the reference L/P&S/12. Material in this IDC Publishers' edition is drawn from Collection 39 (“Turkey”).
During the same period, and earlier, the department also maintained its own reference library of confidential handbooks for the restricted use of its own officials, as did the Military and other India Office departments. The departmental reference libraries from which the printed items in the collection are drawn are now classified as L/P&S/20 and L/MIL/17. These archive groups also include the set of Foreign Office printed correspondence on Asiatic Turkey.

Organisation of the material
For the present publication, the material has been arranged in four groups, in a roughly chronological sequence. The first group comprises printed handbooks and intelligence reports now preserved in the departmental library of the Political and Secret Department (L/P&S/20) together with a few relevant items from the library of the India Office Military Department (L/MIL/17). The second group consists of Foreign Office printed confidential correspondence relating to "Asiatic Turkey" and also preserved in the Political and Secret Departmental library (L/P&S/20). The third and fourth groups comprise Political and Secret Department "Subject Files" and "Collections", for the period c. 1903-1939, broadly subdivided into material relating to the period of Ottoman decline and the First World War and material relating to the post-war settlement and the creation of the Turkish Republic.
• 1. Handbooks and Intelligence Reports, 1908-1920;
• 2. Foreign Office Confidential Printed Correspondence, 1906-1913;
• 3. Ottoman decline and the First World War: Political and Secret Files, 1903-1919;
• 4. The post-war settlement and the Turkish Republic: Political and Secret Files and Collections, 1918-1939.
Within these groups the following information is provided for each item:
• fiche number(s);
• print title, author/issuing body, publication details, security classification etc.;
• number of pages or folios;
• OIOC reference number;
• (for 3-4) original Political and Secret Department file title and registry reference, with additional summary of contents where appropriate; covering dates; number of pages or folios.

Some highlights of the collection
• Personalities: Turkey, Admiralty, War Staff Intelligence Division, 1916;
• A handbook of Turkey in Europe London: Admiralty, War Staff Intelligence Division, 1917;
• Anatolia. Handbook prepared under the direction of the Historical Section of the Foreign Office, 1919;
• The rise of the Turks. The Pan-Turanian Movement. Handbook prepared under the direction of the Historical Section of the Foreign Office, 1919;
• Railways in Asiatic Turkey and the Baghdad Railway negotiations, 1903-1914;
• Turco-Italian war, 1911-1913;
• The Caliphate and Pan-Arab movement, 1914-1918;
• The question of the Caliphate and Sultanate, 1919-1925;
• Treaty of Peace with Turkey: Treaties of Sèvres and Lausanne, 1919-1930;
• Turkey and Greece: war and peace, 1921-1923;
• Foreign Office annual printed reports on Turkish affairs, 1926-1938;
• Remilitarisation of Dardanelles: Montreux Conference, 1936-1937.

Penelope Tuson, Former Curator of Middle East Archives, Oriental & India Office Collections (now APAC), British Library

Series:

British Intelligence on the North-West Frontier, 1901-1949
India Office Political and Secret Reports on Tribes and Terrorism

Introduction
Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province, with its capital and administrative centre at Peshawar, and the adjacent federally administered tribal areas of North and South Waziristan, regularly appear in the media linked to military campaigns in Afghanistan, the search for Al Qaeda and the ideology of Islamic “Jihad”.
In 1901, in a move which foreshadowed the policies of the early twenty-first century, the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, created the British Indian “North-West Frontier Province” in the same region and with a similar, loosely organised, administration. Until the late-nineteenth century the British in India had adopted a policy of non-interference in the tribal territories on their north-western borderlands. The rugged terrain was regarded as a natural and adequate boundary. However, after the emergence of Russia as a potential aggressor and the subsequent years of Anglo-Russian rivalry in the Great Game, a more forward school of policy makers, both in India and London, increasingly argued for active intervention in the tribal areas between Afghanistan and the settled districts of the Punjab.
The Second Afghan War (1878-81) strengthened the British advance into mountain territory and in 1893 a boundary (the “Durand Line”) between British India and Afghanistan was negotiated by Sir Mortimer Durand, the Foreign Secretary of the Government of India. The Durand Line put the previously independent borderlands and tribes into British protected territory. Political Agents were appointed (for example in North and South Waziristan) to maintain informal contacts and to pay allowances to tribal leaders in attempts to keep them co-operative; military forces were mobilized when this policy almost invariably failed.
Curzon believed that the only way to deal with the frontier tribesman was “to pay him and humour him when he behaves, but to lay him out flat when he does not”.[Curzon, 28 June 1902, quoted in David Gilmour, Curzon, London, 1994.] The new North-West Frontier Province was set up under a Chief Commissioner and Agent to the Governor-General. It was made up of five districts (Hazara, Peshawar, Kohat and parts of Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan) together with the tribal administered frontier agencies, Khyber, Kurram, North and South Waziristan. It was formally and visually inaugurated in April 1902 with a durbar in Peshawar attended by Curzon. At the same time the army was withdrawn and replaced by smaller mobile units and tribal levies known as khassadars.
Curzon’s policy was intended to keep the British in much closer touch with the frontier without interfering too much in local affairs. The tribal insurgency, however, continued and after the First World War, followed by the short Third Afghan War in 1919 and large numbers of Indian Army casualties in Waziristan, policy discussions turned towards plans for military pacification accompanied by the reform of tribal society, backed up by economic and social development projects. In another foretaste of twenty-first century policies, in March 1923 the Foreign Secretary to the Government of India, Sir Denys Bray, gave a speech to the Legislative Assembly in which he confidently pronounced: “Come what may, civilization must be made to penetrate these inaccessible mountains”. [Alan Warren, Waziristan, the Faqir of Ipi, and the Indian Army. The North West Frontier Revolt of 1936-37, London, 2000.]
In 1932 the North-West Frontier Province became a Governor’s province with its own legislative council. Economic and social reform, however, proved to be too expensive and too difficult to implement widely. And insurgency continued, with random terrorist attacks, occasional assassinations and sometimes major revolts lasting for several years.
The materials in this collection document the British attempts to impose “order” on the tribal territories. With details of policy initiatives familiar to contemporary observers of the region, the files describe imperial struggles with jihadist movements, and show how local leaders were able to stay out of British hands. The material covers the period 1901 to 1949, from the creation of the “North-West Frontier Province” to 1949, after the demise of British India when the Province had become an administrative region of Pakistan.
It deals with the British efforts to keep the border “quiet” in the face of constant pan-Islamist and jihadi-inspired unrest and it features especially the unsuccessful hunt for the charismatic leader of the troubles in the 1930s and 1940s, the Faqir of Ipi, whose large numbers of followers were to some extent recruited by his claims that Islam was in danger and that Muslims must not accept government by non-Muslim westerners.
Although the Faqir’s rebellion was eventually suppressed the Faqir himself continued to elude the British. On one of the files in this collection, a newspaper report of May 1949 describes the Faqir as having lost control and influence after the independence of Pakistan. Alongside a very rare photograph of the Faqir it notes, however, the lingering charisma: “Legend on the frontier maintains that the Fakir is a wild, unkempt, emaciated figure, with fiery, deep-sunk eyes, a mass of chestnut-coloured hair, and a flaming red beard, which he dyes with henna. It is said he always perfumes him beard with incense before going into battle; that he is a crack shot and a redoubtable horseman. Few outside his followers have ever seen him.” [ L/P&S/12/3241]
A former British Indian civil servant later described the attractions and romance of the isolated life of the Frontier Agents who produced many of the reports in this collection: “the Political Officer was free to tramp the hills after partridge and keep down the murders as much as he could; to share the Pathan’s broad stories and enjoy the guest’s portion of the roast kid stuffed with raisins and pistachios; to keep his ears open and run the risk every day of the knife or bullet of a fanatic.” [Philip Mason, The Men who Ruled India, London, 1985.]

Provenance and archival background
The Government of British India’s relations with foreign states and frontier affairs were handled by the Foreign and Political Departments. These in turn reported to the India Office Political and Secret Department in London where policy was reviewed and reports and correspondence filed for future reference. The Political and Secret Department’s extensive archives now form part of the Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC) within the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections at the British Library. The Political and Secret Department papers and printed material have been catalogued under the OIOC reference L/PS.
From 1902 the most important of the Political and Secret Department’s correspondence and papers were registered, indexed and arranged in separately-bound files according to subject. These are now located under the reference L/P&S/10. Around 1930/1931 the department replaced its subject file system with a new series of “Collections”, arranged according to geographical area. They are now to be found under the reference L/P&S/12. Material in this IDC series of printed intelligence reports is drawn mainly from the subject files (L/P&S/10) and from Collection 23 (“North-West Frontier”) of the subsequent L/P&S/12 series.
The Political and Secret Department also maintained its own reference library of confidential handbooks and reports for the restricted use of its own officials, as did the Military and other India Office departments. The departmental reference library from which the first section of printed reports (“Memoranda of Information”) is drawn is now classified as L/P&S/20.
The collection consists of detailed secret and confidential reports from Frontier Agents in all the border areas, usually submitted on a weekly basis. In addition there are intelligence reviews and summaries produced by the Intelligence Bureau in Peshawar. The reports are geographically wide-ranging. By the 1920s, for example, the British Government was receiving weekly diaries of events in Waziristan, Peshawar, Dera Ismail Khan, Kohat, Hazara and the Khyber valley. In addition many of the North-West Frontier intelligence reports include information on regions extending much further into Afghanistan and Central Asia.
These materials conveniently complement and add to the earlier IDC set British Intelligence on Afghanistan and its frontiers, c.1888-1946, which concentrated on Afghanistan’s internal and external affairs and trans-frontier tribes and personalities viewed from the perspective of British relations with Afghanistan. The Afghanistan set also includes printed handbooks and gazetteers many of which provide a useful topographical and military background to the files and reports in this North-West Frontier collection.

Organisation and Content of the material
For the present publication the material has been arranged in five groups, in a roughly chronological sequence:
1. “Memoranda of Information” on North-West Frontier Affairs, 1901-1911
2. Intelligence Diaries, 1911-1930
3. Annual Reports and Arrangements for Intelligence Gathering, 1922-1942
4. Weekly Intelligence Diaries and Summaries, 1931-1947 5. Waziristan Disturbances, 1937-1949
Within these groups the following information is provided for each item:
• fiche number (s)
• print title, author/issuing body, publication details, security classification
• number of pages or folios
• OIOC reference number
• (for sections 2-5) original Political and Secret Department file title and registry reference, with additional summary of contents where appropriate; covering dates; number of pages or folios.

Some highlights of the collection:
• North-West Frontier Intelligence Bureau Diaries, 1921-1929;
• Weekly Summaries of Intelligence from the Office of the Deputy Director, Intelligence, Peshawar, 1933-1947;
• Parliamentary Paper on tribal disturbances in Waziristan, 1937;
• Weekly diaries from local agents in Waziristan, Khyber, Dera Ismail Khan, Hazara, Kohat, Peshawar;

Anthony Farrington & Penelope Tuson, formerly Oriental and India Office Collections, British Library