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The Siege of Szigetvár and the Death of Süleyman the Magnificent and Nicholas Zrínyi (1566)
Editor: Pál Fodor
In The Battle for Central Europe specialists in sixteenth-century Ottoman, Habsburg and Hungarian history provide the most comprehensive picture possible of a battle that determined the fate of Central Europe for centuries. Not only the siege and the death of its main protagonists are discussed, but also the wider context of the imperial rivalry and the empire buildings of the competing great powers of that age.

Contributors include Gábor Ágoston, János B. Szabó, Zsuzsa Barbarics-Hermanik, Günhan Börekçi, Feridun M. Emecen, Alfredo Alvar Ezquerra, István Fazekas, Pál Fodor, Klára Hegyi, Colin Imber, Damir Karbić, József Kelenik, Zoltán Korpás, Tijana Krstić, Nenad Moačanin, Gülru Neci̇poğlu, Erol Özvar, Géza Pálffy, Norbert Pap, Peter Rauscher, Claudia Römer, Arno Strohmeyer, Zeynep Tarım, James D. Tracy, Gábor Tüskés, Szabolcs Varga, Nicolas Vatin.
Ethnic Diversity, Denominational Plurality, and Corporative Politics in the Principality of Transylvania (1526-1691)
Author: István Keul
Conceived as another chapter in the European history of religions (Europäische Religionsgeschichte), this book deals with the intense dynamics of the overlapping political, ethnic, and denominational constellations in Reformation and post-Reformation Transylvania. Navigating along multiple narrative tracks, and attempting to treat the religious history of an entire region – over a limited time period – in a differentiated, polyfocal way, the book represents a departure from the master narratives of any singularly oriented religious history. At the same time, the present work seeks to contribute to laying the groundwork at the micro- and meso-contextual level of East-Central European confessionalization processes, and to developing interpretive models for these processes in the region.
Contemplation and Commemoration in Early Modern Poland-Lithuania
In Visual Cultures of Death in Central Europe, Aleksandra Koutny-Jones explores the emergence of a remarkable cultural preoccupation with death in Poland-Lithuania (1569-1795). Examining why such interests resonated so strongly in the Baroque art of this Commonwealth, she argues that the printing revolution, the impact of the Counter-Reformation, and multiple afflictions suffered by Poland-Lithuania all contributed to a deep cultural concern with mortality.
Introducing readers to a range of art, architecture and material culture, this study considers various visual evocations of death including 'Dance of Death' imagery, funerary decorations, coffin portraiture, tomb chapels and religious landscapes. These, Koutny-Jones argues, engaged with wider European cultures of contemplation and commemoration, while also being critically adapted to the specific context of Poland-Lithuania.
A Companion to the Reformation in Central Europe analyses the diverse Christian cultures of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Czech lands, Austria, and lands of the Hungarian kingdom between the 15th and 18th centuries. It establishes the geography of Reformation movements across this region, and then considers different movements of reform and the role played by Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox clergy. This volume examines different contexts and social settings for reform movements, and investigates how cities, princely courts, universities, schools, books, and images helped spread ideas about reform. This volume brings together expertise on diverse lands and churches to provide the first integrated account of religious life in Central Europe during the early modern period.

Contributors are: Phillip Haberkern, Maciej Ptaszyński, Astrid von Schlachta, Márta Fata, Natalia Nowakowska, Luka Ilić, Michael Springer, Edit Szegedi, Mihály Balázs, Rona Johnston Gordon, Howard Louthan, Tadhg Ó hAnnracháin, Liudmyla Sharipova, Alexander Schunka, Rudolf Schlögl, Václav Bůžek, Mark Hengerer, Michael Tworek, Pál Ács, Maria Crăciun, Grażyna Jurkowlaniec, Laura Lisy-Wagner, and Graeme Murdock.
The People's Quest for Salvation in the Sixteenth Century
Author: Peter Blickle
The Communal Reformation presents a new argument about the origins of the Protestant Reformation and their relationship to the social and political experience, institutions, and goals of the common people, both townsfolk and peasants, in Central Europe. It reveals the common quest of ordinary people in the towns and on the land for religious reform through communal action. The book focuses on southern Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, though it has important implications the social and religious history of Europe as a whole.
In the period between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries a considerable number of Scots migrated to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Some sojourned there for some time, while others stayed permanently and exercised commercial business and crafts. The migration stopped in the eighteenth century, and the Scots who remained in Poland seem to have lost their ethnic identity. This book offers an examination and assessment of this migration: numbers of migrants; patterns of settlement; laws regulating Scottish presence in Poland-Lithuania; their commercial, academic, religious and military activities; their social advancement into the Polish nobility; their assimilation and then the eventual disappearance as a distinct ethnic group in Poland-Lithuania.
Books from the National Széchényi Library, Hungary
Hungarian Reformation
Books from the National Széchényi Library, Hungary

The European Reformation affected societies from the Highlands in Scotland to the Carpathians in Transylvania. In recent years historians have begun to uncover the true breadth of religious reform across Europe during the early modern period. This has fundamentally changed our perception of the Reformation and of the development of Europe's major confessional communities.

No part of Central Europe was more profoundly impacted by religious reform than the lands of the medieval Hungarian kingdom. On the front-line between Christian and Muslim Europe, Hungarian society was divided between a range of religions in the middle decades of the sixteenth century. In the Transylvanian principality these divisions were peacefully accommodated in a remarkable system of religious pluralism. The texts of Hungarian reformers, whether Lutheran, Calvinist, Catholic, or Anti-Trinitarian have hitherto been virtually unknown to the scholarly community. For the first time, this collection offers a comprehensive survey of the original writings of the Hungarian reformers. It includes texts from the period of the first stirrings of reform in the 1540s through to works written for the established churches of the region during the 1650s.

Religious diversity
The titles in this collection convey the unique character and wider significance of religious life in early modern Hungary. Texts have been chosen to reflect the religious diversity and spread of ideas about reform among the different linguistic communities of the region. There is firstly a focus on the emergence of three major strands of reform during the sixteenth century (Lutheran, Reformed, and Anti-Trinitarian), through works of doctrine, confessions, and catechisms. Further texts highlight battles over religious truth with particular regard to the sacraments and the Trinity. A third group of texts focus on the revival of Catholic piety in Hungary from the beginning of the seventeenth century. This collection also particularly concentrates on the development of Hungarian Reformed religion during the seventeenth century, one of the most significant but least well-understood of Europe's Calvinist churches, and includes literature about patterns of worship, educational reform, attitudes to politics and history, and about the Hungarian Puritan movement.

Wider significance
This collection is of immediate value not only to researchers of the history of Reformation in Central Europe, but also to those working on the impact across Europe of leading figures including Luther, Calvin, Bullinger, and Canisius. It is an invaluable resource for historians interested in the Lutheran Reformation, the development of international Calvinism, the Catholic Reformation, and the emergence of Anti-Trinitarianism. Finally, the collection features significant texts for historians of toleration, education, and patterns of religious piety.

Graeme Murdock
Germanic Material Culture in Pre-Carolingian Central Europe, 400-750
Author: Herbert Schutz
This illustrated book continues themes in Central European cultural history treated elsewhere with the intention of presenting an interdisciplinary study of early medieval socio-cultural developments.
A continuation of the preceding books, this volume examines the archeological evidence of the groups who settled Central Europe. It aims to amplify the information recorded during the late Roman Empire about societies, social dynamics and ethnological contexts by examining their material culture. The language of significant objects complements the literature of significant texts.
The three parts of the book inform of the historical and archeological evidence; elaborate the socio-cultural conclusions provided by archeology; examine the system of values as reflected in the forms of artistic expression. The study of objects helps clarify the contours of the Germanic populations of pre-Carolingian Central Europe.
Author: William Bowman
Priest and Parish in Vienna, 1780 to 1880 is a bold, new social and cultural history of religion in modern Europe. By establishing some of the most important parameter of religious life, such as parish demographics, the economics of parish life, the social and national background of priests, and the world of Catholic sacrament and feastdays, this book contextualizes for the first time the contentious social and cultural relationship between religion and society in nineteenth-century Vienna.
In the nineteenth century, parish priests confronted tumultuous social changes such as industrialization and urbanization, which eroded clerical influence in Austria. Priests did not react well to this development and by the 1880s turned to party political activity in defense of their position within Austrian society. Eventually, many of the parish priests were mobilized into Karl Lueger's Christian Social movement. Parish priests, a very important and influential group in Austria, were therefore changed from servants of the state into political activists.
Credit, Property, and Politics in Leipzig, 1750-1840
Author: Robert Beachy
This volume provides a new interpretation of the social and cultural context that shaped German political reforms from the mid-eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. Focusing on Electoral Saxony, the analysis demonstrates how the commercial city of Leipzig shaped the Saxon Enlightenment and then had a powerful influence on reforming the territorial state. The study presents extensive archival research to develop a careful account of Leipzig’s social and political history and then argues persuasively that the city played a catalytic role in the introduction of a Saxon constitutional monarchy after 1830. The volume emphasizes the role of pre-modern urban political and legal norms in shaping the first liberal reforms in nineteenth-century Germany.