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Benjamin A. Elman

Abstract

This article is about the contested nature of "science" in "modern" China. The struggle over the meaning and significance of the specific types of natural studies brought by Protestants (1842-1895) occurred in a historical context in which natural studies in late imperial China were until 1900 part of a nativist imperial and literati project to master and control Western views on what constituted legitimate natural knowledge. After the industrial revolution in Europe, a weakened Qing government and its increasingly concerned Han Chinese and Manchu elites turned to "Western" models of science, medicine, and technology, which were disguised under the traditional terminology for natural studies. In the aftermath of the 1894-95 Sino-Japanese War, Chinese reformers, radicals, and revolutionaries turned to Japanese and Western science as an intellectual weapon to destroy the perceived backwardness of China. Until 1900, the Chinese had interpreted the transition from "Chinese science" to modern, universal scientific knowledge - and its new modes of industrial power - on their own terms. After 1900, the teleology of a universal and progressive "science" first invented in Europe replaced the Chinese notion that Western natural studies had their origins in ancient China, but this development was also challenged in the aftermath of World War One during the 1923 debate over "Science and the Philosophy of Life."

FERDINANDO ABBRI

GEOFFREY ERNEST RICHARD LLOYD, Aristotelian explorations, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, x + 242 pp. Adversaries and Authorities. Investigations into ancient Greek and Chinese science, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, xvm + 250 pp. («Ideas in con- textÂ

9. The ‘Why Not’ Question of Chinese Science

The Scientific Revolution and Traditional Chinese Science

Series:

Yung Sik Kim

The Origins of the First United Front in China (2 vols.)

The Role of Sneevliet (Alias Maring)

Series:

Saich

Sneevliet (alias Maring) played a crucial role in the early years of the Chinese communist movement. This source publication of his personal archives provides new information on the development of the communist movement, the Soviet role in China, the communist labour movement and relations between the communists and nationalists.

The Portrait of Matteo Ricci

A Mirror of Western Religious and Chinese Literati Portrait Painting

César Guillen-Nuñez

currents of Chinese portraiture of the period are identified, as are relevant features that derive from late sixteenth-century Counter-Reformation portraiture in Europe. Certain aspects of Ricci’s contribution to Chinese science are also discussed, as they shed light both on the personality of the

Translating Science

The Transmission of Western Chemistry into Late Imperial China, 1840-1900

Series:

David C. Wright

How did the Chinese in the 19th century deal with the enormous influx of Western science? What were the patterns behind this watershed in Chinese intellectual history?
This work deals with those responsible for the translation of science, the major issues they were confronted with, and their struggles; the Chinese translators’ views of its overpowering influence on, and interaction with their own great tradition, those of the missionary-translators who used natural theology to propagate the Gospel, and those of John Fryer, a ‘secular missionary’, who founded the Shanghai Polytechnic and edited the Chinese Scientific Magazine.
With due attention for the techniques of translation, the formation of new terms, the mechanisms behind the ‘struggle for survival’ between the, in this case, chemical terms, all amply illustrated at the hand of original texts.
The final chapter charts the intellectual influence of Western science, the role of the scientific metaphor in political discourse, and the translation of science from a collection of mere ‘techniques’ to a source of political inspiration.

Frederik Vermote

global sociology of corporations. Anna Winterbottom, in her analysis of the intersections of science and global trading companies, also touches upon the Jesuits. Winterbottom emphasizes the Jesuit contributions to the fields of astronomy and mathematics and their role in connecting European and Chinese

Toby E. Huff

based on yang and yin, ch’i and the five elements ( wu hsing ). These were orchestrated into the tradition of the magic squares, creating (in Needham’s words) the world’s most “stupendous filing-system” that hung like an albatross around the neck of Chinese science all the way into the nineteenth

Emily C. Nacol

argument that the military weaknesses of the Chinese state were a primary detriment to their trade practices. In chapter six, she shows how critiques of the Chinese military paralleled European views of the stagnant state of Chinese science and technology, in spite of its important early innovations. These

BOOK REVIEWS Lloyd, G.E.R., Adversaries and Authorities: Investigations into Ancient Greek and Chinese Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), xvii + 250 pp. $19.95 ISBN 0 521 55695 3. As G.E.R. Lloyd remarks, "there is nothing automatic about the ways in which different