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Paul Jakov Smith

institutional initiatives is referred to by many of the essay- ists in Hymes and Schirokauer, Ordering the World . For one of the most in fl uential con- tributions to the fi eld see Denis Twitchett, “The Fan Clan’s Charitable Estate, 1050-1760,” in Confucianism in Action , ed. Arthur F. Wright (Stanford

Johann Arnason

fi cations. The fi rst of them has to do with intellectual developments under the Song. On this level, the dominant trend was the rise of a new interpretive synthesis of traditions going back to the Axial Age (Neo-Confucianism is the accepted Western sub- stitute for the Chinese terms daoxue [Learning

Björn Wittrock

, Confucianism and Daoism, have little if any con- cern for a distinction between transcendental and mundane spheres. Precisely for this reason the universal-inclusive path of the Sinic world allows for and involves constant philosophical contestation between di ff erent traditions. In a sense, a Mosaic

Björn Wittrock and Johann Arnason

limited to South China, was also a time of transformations. Against the background of a de fi nitive setback to irre- dentist ambitions, the gentry—now based on a more fl exible combina- tion of o ffi ce-holding with property and status—consolidated its social power at the expense of central authority. Neo-Confucianism

Michal Biran

-cultural exchange crusades 180-182 Crusades 273 Crystallization, cultural 41, 50, 55 Csanád 116 culture and power 15-17 Cumans 119, 125-6 Cunegond 122 Cyril-Constantine, St. 112 Cyrillo-Methodian mission 100 Czechs 100, 112 Dalmatia 114 Danes 99 Daoism 51 daoxue see Neo-Confucianism Dardess, John 302-03 Darnton

Herman Paul

situations discussed in the Shiji neatly corresponded to what Confucianism traditionally understood the way of heaven to be, there is a tendency in the Shiji to turn towards “theodicy,” or explication of why the way of heaven is never unjust. The good, then, that Sima Qian pursued along this line was

Philip J. Ivanhoe

David S. Nivison, “Golden Rule Arguments in Chinese Moral Philosophy,” in Bryan W. Van Norden, ed., The Ways of Confucianism . La Salle, IL: Open Court Press, 1996): 71–2. 10 Such ideas show that Zhang has a robust sense of shu . It is not just the imaginative reconstruction of another’s point of

Paul Chung

impact on Confu- cian intellectuals such as Chung Yak-Yong (known as Ta-San) in Korea who attempted to renew a rigid and hierarchical form ofZhu Xi's Confucianism by returning to the original form of that religion. Moffett's statement about Chung Yak-Chong, the eldest brother ofTa-San is convincing and

Oscar Salemink

,’ and the effort to repudiate Buddhism and present Christianity as close to—and not antithetical to—Confucianism. Curiously, Part One, “Mission and catechesis in Seventeenth-Century Vietnam,” had been published previously, in 1998, by the same publisher, under the same title as the present book, and